Recommended Topics (New Article)
New Definition of Dark Matter >>
Overview of the Zero Energy Cycle Theory >>
Vacuum Fluctuations and Zero Theory >>
Transmission of Photons and Gravity Using the Vacuum as a Medium >>
Energy Sources of the Big Bang and Big Crunch >>
Black Hole Singularity and Energy Conversion Theory >>
Holographically Encoded Phenomena at the Event Horizon of a Black Hole >>
Fractallike structure of the universe, Big Bang, Big Crunch >>
Dark Energy and the ExpansionContraction Cycle in Zero Theory >>
Redefining the dual nature of photons: A Comparison of Existing Theories and New Theories >>
Overview of the Zero Energy Cycle Theory
New Definition and Theoretical Background of Integrated Dark Matter \( \rho_X \)
One of the major mysteries in cosmology is the rapid rotation of stars and gas in the outer regions of galaxies. To explain this phenomenon, physicists have long hypothesized the existence of dark matter. However, conventional dark matter models have limitations and cannot fully explain the flattening of the rotation speeds in these outer regions.
In this paper, we propose a new definition of dark matter \( \rho_X \), based on quantum fluctuations of vacuum energy, applying Zero Theory and aiming to integrate it with quantum field theory (QFT) and general relativity (GR). Furthermore, we will explore gravitational lensing as a result of theoretical consistency and delve deeper into the mechanisms of gravity and energy transmission.
1. The Standard Einstein Equation in General Relativity
1.1 The Standard Einstein Equation
The Einstein equation in general relativity (GR) is the fundamental equation that relates the curvature of spacetime to the distribution of matter and energy:
\[ G_{\mu\nu} + \Lambda g_{\mu\nu} = \frac{8\pi G}{c^4} T_{\mu\nu} \]
Where:
 \( G_{\mu\nu} \) is the Einstein tensor, representing the curvature of spacetime.
 \( \Lambda \) is the cosmological constant, representing uniformly distributed dark energy.
 \( G \) is the gravitational constant.
 \( c \) is the speed of light.
 \( T_{\mu\nu} \) is the energymomentum tensor, describing the distribution of matter and energy.
2. The Expansion of the Einstein Equation through Zero Theory
2.1 Overview of Zero Theory
Zero Theory is an approach that incorporates quantum fluctuations of vacuum energy density into the gravitational field, defining dark matter \( \rho_X \) in a new way. Through this theory, the Einstein equation is expanded as follows:
\[ G_{\mu\nu} = \frac{8\pi G}{c^4} \left( T_{\mu\nu}^{\text{matter}}  \rho_X g_{\mu\nu} \right) \]
Here, \( \rho_X \) is the vacuum energy density, which directly influences the curvature of spacetime. These fluctuations in vacuum energy suggest that dark matter does not need to exist as particles, offering a key explanation of gravitational phenomena as quantum fluctuations in vacuum energy.
3. New Definition of Dark Matter \( \rho_X \) and Understanding of Observational Phenomena
3.1 Overview of the New Definition
The new definition of dark matter \( \rho_X \) is that it is a local fluctuation in vacuum energy. In this way, dark matter is understood not as a particle, but as a fluctuation in the energy of the vacuum. In other words, phenomena such as the rotation speed of galaxies and gravitational lensing can be explained through transformations in vacuum energy.
3.2 Gravitational Lensing and the Vacuum as a Medium for Energy Transmission
3.2.1 What is Gravitational Lensing?
Gravitational lensing is a phenomenon in which light from a distant source appears to bend due to the curvature of spacetime around a massive object. In general relativity, mass bends spacetime, causing light to follow a curved path. The new theory, however, adds the perspective that vacuum acts as a medium for energy transmission.
3.2.2 The Role of Vacuum
In the new theory, gravitational lensing is a phenomenon that occurs as a result of mass distorting the vacuum. The vacuum functions as a medium for energy transmission, influencing the path of photons through energy vibrations and transformations. When a massive object distorts the vacuum, light travels through the distorted vacuum, appearing bent to the observer.
From this perspective, gravitational lensing can be understood as an observational phenomenon that proves the vacuum serves as a medium for energy transmission.
4. The Relationship Between Energy Density and the Rotation Speed of Galaxies
4.1 The Mechanism for Maintaining Galactic Rotation Speed
In the outer regions of galaxies, where the matter density decreases, vacuum energy \( \rho_X \) plays a dominant role, driving the matter in these regions and maintaining a constant rotation speed. This is the result of an energy transformation process, where vacuum energy consistently influences the entire galaxy.
5. Why Gravitational Lensing Proves the Theory
5.1 Unified Understanding of E=mc² and Energy
Einstein's famous equation, E=mc², shows that mass and energy are equivalent. In the new theory, gravitational lensing and the flattening of galactic rotation speeds are all understood as results of energy transformation processes, eliminating the need for dark matter to exist as hypothetical particles. Instead, dark matter \( \rho_X \), as a fluctuation in vacuum energy, causes the observed gravitational phenomena through differences in energy density.
5.1.1 Redefinition of Dark Matter
Dark matter is redefined not as particles but as fluctuations in energy density, explaining observed phenomena like gravitational lensing. Energy affects the curvature of spacetime, bending light and resulting in observable effects.
5.1.2 Reinterpretation of Gravitons
Previously, gravitons were proposed as hypothetical particles that mediate gravity. However, in vacuum energy theory, gravitons are no longer necessary. Gravity itself is explained as the result of energy transformations in the vacuum, where the mass's influence on the vacuum is observed as "gravity."
6. Conclusion and Future Prospects
This theory provides a new perspective, where vacuum energy acts as a medium for energy transmission, offering a unified explanation for gravitational phenomena, galactic rotation speeds, and gravitational lensing. Observed phenomena are understood as results of energy transformations, establishing theoretical consistency without the need for hypothetical particles like dark matter or gravitons.
Future challenges include further clarifying how vacuum energy fluctuations contribute to quantum mechanical phenomena and energy variations. Additionally, further experimental verification is required to confirm the consistency between observational data and the theory.
In conclusion, the observed gravitational lensing and the flattening of galactic rotation speeds are all consistently explained by the theory of vacuum energy transformations.
Gravitational Lensing and Vacuum as a Medium for Energy Transmission
1. What is Gravitational Lensing?
Gravitational lensing is a phenomenon where a massive object warps the spacetime around it, causing light from distant sources to bend as observed. This effect, explained through general relativity, has widely been accepted as intuitive — light bends due to the gravitational field of the object. However, a deeper energy mechanism is at play behind this phenomenon.
2. Understanding Vacuum as an Energy Transmission Medium
The new theory posits that gravitational lensing is not simply due to mass bending light but rather a phenomenon arising because **vacuum acts as a medium for energy transmission**. Not only does mass warp spacetime, but vacuum itself acts as a "field" that transmits energy.
 **Massive objects distort the vacuum:** Large massive objects (e.g., galaxies, black holes) induce energy vibrations in the surrounding vacuum, causing the vacuum to warp. This warping causes space to ripple, affecting even the flow of time. This distortion alters the path of light, and the bending of distant light is observed as the gravitational lensing effect.
 **Photons follow the vibrations of the vacuum:** Photons, being a form of energy, follow the vacuum's energy conversion and vibrations. As a result, the path of light bends along the distorted vacuum, appearing bent to the observer. This phenomenon itself demonstrates that vacuum serves as a medium for energy transmission.
Why Gravitational Lensing Proves the Theory
1. Unified Understanding of E=mc² and Energy
Einstein's famous equation **E=mc²** shows that mass and energy are equivalent. Applying this to the new energy transformation theory, the idea emerges that all phenomena can be explained through energy transformations and transmissions.
 **The Role of Dark Matter:** In conventional physics, dark matter has been explained as particles. In the new theory, however, dark matter is reinterpreted as "vacuum energy transformations." In other words, dark matter is a phenomenon based on energy differences, and that energy induces forces like gravity through the vacuum medium. The gravitational behavior observed through gravitational lensing is evidence that dark matter manifests as differences in energy density, rather than particles.
 **The Role of Gravitons:** Gravitons have been proposed as hypothetical particles that mediate gravity. However, in the new theory, gravitons are no longer necessary. Gravity itself is the result of energy transformations and vibrations in the vacuum. The presence of mass alters the vacuum medium, which is observed as "gravity." Therefore, gravitons are replaced by the behavior of vacuum energy.
2. Gravitational Lensing as Proof of the Energy Transformation Theory
Gravitational lensing serves as observational proof that the vacuum is a medium for transmitting energy transformations. This can be understood through the following steps:
 **Mass distorts the vacuum, and energy transforms:** A massive object distorts the surrounding vacuum, triggering energy transformations. This distortion alters the structure of spacetime, and photons (energy) travel along the warped spacetime.
 **Light travels along the distorted path, leading to gravitational lensing:** The path of photons traveling through the warped spacetime is bent, and the observer sees the light of distant objects as bent. This observation demonstrates that energy transformations act through the vacuum.
3. The Phenomena Themselves Prove the Theory
In this way, gravitational lensing and other gravitational phenomena (e.g., the flattening of galaxy rotation curves) are all understood as part of the energy transformation theory. The phenomena themselves serve as evidence that **vacuum functions as a medium for energy transmission**, and based on the principle of E=mc², these phenomena can be explained without relying on hypothetical particles like dark matter or gravitons.
An Analogy for Understanding: The Vibrating String Model
To further clarify this theory, the following analogy can be used:
 **A string with ends A and B, where A vibrates:** When A vibrates, it sends waves through the string, affecting B. The stronger A vibrates, the more the string undulates, and the apparent distance between A and B may shorten. These undulations correspond to the **warping of spacetime**.
 **The string represents the vacuum of the universe:** A represents a massive object (energy density), and B represents photons or other forms of energy. As A warps the string, B follows the undulating string, and thus B’s path appears bent. This serves as an analogy for the **gravitational lensing effect**.
Conclusion: Observational Phenomena as Proof of the Energy Transformation Theory
 **Gravitational lensing** and the **flattening of galaxy rotation curves** are phenomena resulting from energy transformations transmitted through the vacuum. These phenomena can be consistently explained without the assumption of hypothetical particles like dark matter or gravitons, instead relying on the energy transformations of the vacuum.
 Based on the equivalence of mass and energy as demonstrated by **E=mc²**, the bending of light and gravitational phenomena are all caused by energy transformations, proving the nature of vacuum as a medium for energy transmission.
Thus, these observational results themselves serve as proof of the energy transformation theory, offering a new understanding that surpasses the limitations of modern physics.
Overview of the Zero Energy Cycle Theory
The Zero Energy Cycle Theory provides a new cosmological view based on the foundational equation "0 = +∞ − ∞," where the infinite progression of energy generation and annihilation ensures energy conservation. This theory perceives the entire universe as a "universe within fluctuations" in a medium called "vacuum," where continuous energy generation and annihilation occur.
The theory posits that the universe is a fluctuation within a single medium known as the "vacuum," attributing all cosmic phenomena to these vacuum fluctuations. The vacuum serves as the basis for all energy in the universe, and its energy fluctuations are believed to drive the dynamics of the cosmos.
The Relationship Between Observation Points and Multiverse Theory
Universe Generated by Fluctuations:
The "universe generated by fluctuations" refers to the concept that the material medium generated from vacuum fluctuations is considered to be the multiverse itself, distinct from the fluctuations (e.g., galaxy formation) occurring within the universe after the Big Bang.
Observation Points A and A':
Observation Point A: The perspective from which material generated by vacuum fluctuations is observed externally.
Observation Point A': The observation point within the universe generated by fluctuations, observing the universe from within.
According to the Zero Energy Cycle Theory, concepts like time and size are relative and dependent on the observer's viewpoint. This means that even the same phenomenon might be perceived differently in time and scale depending on the observation point. For example, from Observation Point A, A' may appear as a tiny, fleeting event, while within A', the scale might seem infinite, and time might appear eternal.
The Relativity of Size and Time and Consistency with Relativity Theory
The length of time and size can vary significantly depending on the observation standpoint, such as Observation Points A and A'. These concepts are relative rather than absolute, aligning with the Theory of Relativity.
According to relativity, the size of an object and the passage of time depend on the object's speed and the strength of the gravitational field. The idea that time and space differ for each observer aligns with relativity's concept of "spacetime relativity for each observer."
The Relationship Between Energy and Vacuum Fluctuations
This theory explains how the generation and annihilation of energy through vacuum fluctuations result in a continuous cycle of cosmic phenomena.
1. Dynamic Generation and Annihilation of Energy
The zero energy state involves the merging of matter and antimatter energies, leading to their transformation into different energy states, described by:
\[E_{\text{matter}} + E_{\text{antimatter}} = 2mc^2\]This equation shows that the energy of matter and antimatter exists in complementary forms. This energy transformation process, originating from vacuum fluctuations, triggers phenomena like the Big Bang (as a creation from nothing) and the Big Crunch (energy dissolution).
2. Generation and Complementarity of Matter and Antimatter
The material universe and the antimatter universe are generated symmetrically and engage in a relationship through energy cycles, attracting each other. This interaction explains the presence of abundant antimatter in the early universe.
Extended Analogies
1. Analogy of Electromagnets and Iron Sand
Iron Sand in an Electromagnet:
In the early stage, with weak current, iron sand remains mixed at the center, and polarity is not distinct. This represents the state of the early universe where matter and antimatter were still mingled.
As the current increases, the S and N poles become distinct, and the iron sand aligns with each pole, separating clearly. This mirrors the cosmic evolution where increasing energy leads to a clearer separation of matter and antimatter.
Zero Point Energy and Vacuum Fluctuations
\[⟨0∣H∣0⟩_{\text{ren}} = \frac{1}{2} \sum_{k=0}^{k_{\text{max}}} ℏω_k\]
This equation shows that vacuum fluctuations induce finite energy changes, with the cutoff wavenumber \(k_{\text{max}}\) introduced to prevent infinite energy divergence.
Additional Implications for Current Theories
Dark energy and cosmic expansion mechanisms are explained through differential equations that describe how energy stabilizes, potentially leading to cosmic contraction.
The Symmetry Between the Physical and Spiritual Worlds
This theory suggests a relationship between physical and nonphysical phenomena, linking it with concepts from multiverse and string theories.
The Zero Energy Cycle Theory highlights the recurring energy transformations that sustain cosmic evolution, emphasizing how matter and antimatter interact to preserve the dynamic balance of the universe.
Integrated Study of Vacuum Fluctuations, MatterAntimatter Creation, and the Fractal Universe Model Based on Zero Theory
1. Introduction
Zero theory views the creation and annihilation of the universe as a dynamic energy transformation based on vacuum fluctuations. It provides a new perspective that unifies the generation of matter and antimatter, the fractal structure of the universe, dark energy, and the mechanisms of cosmic expansion and contraction through vacuum energy. In this paper, we will consider the mathematical model of zero theory and its consistency with general relativity (GR) and quantum electrodynamics (QED), proposing a multidimensional universe model based on the perspectives of observation points A and A'.
The aim of zero theory is to address the challenges faced by modern physics regarding dark energy and cosmic expansion. Traditional physical theories have yet to fully explain the dynamics of cosmic expansion and energy, creating a need for new approaches. This theory posits that vacuum energy governs all phenomena in the universe and provides dynamism through energy transformations.
2. Perspectives of Observation Points A and A'
Understanding zero theory requires two perspectives: the "observation point A (external perspective)" and the "observation point A' (internal perspective)." The difference between these viewpoints offers a multidimensional approach to deepen our understanding of the universe's structure and energy dynamics. The core of this theory lies in how these differing perspectives of the observer alter the perception of phenomena.
2.1 Observation Point A (External Perspective)
Vacuum fluctuations seen from an external viewpoint: From the perspective of observation point A, vacuum fluctuations are extremely brief and small phenomena, making it challenging to perceive the largescale structure and energy contained within them. Based on current scientific observation techniques and frameworks, these fluctuations are considered so tiny and fleeting that they vanish almost instantaneously.
The importance of relative viewpoints and relativity theory: In this perspective, the relativity of time and space, as described by relativity theory, plays a significant role. As Einstein demonstrated, the perception of time and space can change drastically depending on the observer's position and state. Thus, it is possible that our universe, from an external viewpoint, might be nothing more than a "momentary vacuum fluctuation."
Adopting this relative viewpoint prompts a reassessment of traditional cosmology. If we have assumed that there is nothing within this fluctuation from the perspective of an external observer, it might simply be a limitation of observation or a constraint imposed by our own viewpoint.
2.2 Observation Point A' (Internal Perspective)
The universe's structure seen from within: From the perspective of observation point A', it becomes apparent that the energy of vacuum fluctuations could selforganize to form its unique spacetime. This internal viewpoint suggests that vacuum fluctuations themselves form the foundation of the universe, where energy transformations and the creation of matter and antimatter are continuously occurring.
Fractal scale and selfsimilarity: In this internal perspective, the universe's structure possesses fractal selfsimilarity, meaning that the same patterns repeat on all scales. From the viewpoint of observation point A', an endless cycle of energy transformation through vacuum fluctuations unfolds, potentially causing the entire universe to expand in a fractal manner.
Considering the principles of relativity, which state that the observation results of time and space depend on the observer's position, strongly supports this theory. If the reality seen by an internal observer differs from our understanding of the universe, dismissing that could be tantamount to imposing our own observational limitations.
3. Perspectives of Fractal Theory and Energy Transformation in Zero Theory
Zero theory conceives the universe as "fluctuations themselves" that repeat the cycle of creation and annihilation within a single medium known as "vacuum." Both the Big Bang and the Big Crunch are understood as phenomena stemming from vacuum fluctuations.
Relativity of time and scale: In zero theory, the concepts of time and space are relative to the observer, and the same phenomenon can be perceived differently in terms of time and scale depending on the observation point. When observed externally, this universe may also be perceived as a "momentary vacuum fluctuation" that is tiny and transient.
Energy transformation cycles: Changes in the entire universe and energy flows are attributed to the process of energy conversion through vacuum fluctuations. According to zero theory, the total mass of the cosmic medium (vacuum) remains constant due to these energy transformations, maintaining the overall energy balance of the universe.
3.1 Fractal Structure and SelfSimilarity of Vacuum Fluctuations
The concept of selfsimilarity: In fractal structures, selfsimilarity means that similar patterns recur at every scale. From the perspective of zero theory, energy fluctuations caused by vacuum fluctuations could generate similar spacetime structures at all scales.
The multidimensional fractal model of the universe: In this fractal model, vacuum fluctuations repeatedly carry out energy conversions, creating nearly infinite cosmic structures. As a result, from the perspective of observation point A', the universe is recognized as a dynamic and multidimensional entity that continuously changes while consistently reproducing the same patterns.
3.2 Multidimensional Understanding of Zero Theory and Observation Points A and A'
By understanding the difference between observation points A and A', zero theory allows vacuum fluctuations to be redefined as not merely a temporary phenomenon but as a fundamental force governing the generation and annihilation of the entire universe. This multidimensional approach redefines vacuum fluctuations not as simple energy variations but as a part of the dynamic energy exchange cycle driving the evolution of the universe.
4. Consistency of Zero Theory with Existing Theories (GR, QED)
Consistency with General Relativity: Zero theory is expressed by incorporating vacuum energy density into the Einstein equation, clarifying the effect of vacuum on spacetime curvature.
\[ G_{\mu\nu} = \frac{8\pi G}{c^4} \left( T_{\mu\nu}^{\text{matter}}  \rho_{\text{vac}} g_{\mu\nu} \right) \]
This modification provides a theoretical foundation for explaining the mechanisms of cosmic expansion and contraction.
4.2 Consistency with Quantum Electrodynamics
Consistency with QED: Zero theory describes the waveparticle duality of photons as a manifestation of vacuum fluctuations, maintaining consistency with experimental phenomena such as the Casimir effect.
\[ a_k^\dagger 0\rangle = k\rangle, \quad a_k k\rangle = 0\rangle \]
This approach enables a bridge between quantum mechanics and cosmology.
5. Conclusion
Zero theory proposes a new cosmological framework that combines vacuum fluctuations, the creation of matter and antimatter, fractal cosmic structures, and multidimensional perspectives. By integrating the perspectives of observation points A and A', this multidimensional approach deepens our understanding of the universe's energy dynamics and the nature of time and space, fostering new interpretations of dark energy and dark matter.
This document provides a comprehensive cosmological consideration based on zero theory, integrating the perspectives of observation points A and A' with fractal theory, laying the groundwork for new developments in physics.
Fractallike structure of the universe
Big Bang, Big Crunch
1. Overview of the Zero Theory and Fractal Structure of the Universe
The Zero Energy Cycle Theory is a theory based on the idea that the expansion and contraction of the universe are driven by energy exchange processes, maintaining the total energy of the universe at zero. As an alternative to the conventional ΛCDM model, this theory presents the following key characteristics.
1.1 Fractal Structure and Energy Conservation
In the Zero Theory, the largescale structure of the universe is considered to have fractal properties, where selfsimilar structures are repeated on different scales. The fractal structure is based on the interaction between the matter universe and the antimatter universe and is linked to the law of conservation of energy across the entire universe.
According to this theory, the total energy of the universe is kept at zero by the mutual cancellation of matter energy, antimatter energy, and gravitational energy. This dynamic exchange of energy between expansion and contraction is expressed by the following equation:
\[ E_{\text{total}} = E_{\text{matter}} + E_{\text{antimatter}} + E_{\text{gravity}} = 0 \]
This equation indicates that matter and antimatter cancel each other out, keeping the universe's energy always at zero.
1.2 Role of Observation Points A and A'
The Zero Theory introduces external and internal perspectives to observe the expansion and contraction of the universe.
 Observation Point A (External Perspective): This is a viewpoint observing our universe from the outside, where processes like the creation of matter and antimatter through vacuum fluctuations and energy exchanges with the antimatter universe can be observed.
 Observation Point A' (Internal Perspective): This viewpoint observes the distribution of matter and antimatter and the fractal structure within the universe. This helps evaluate the relationship between the universe's energy exchange processes and the external viewpoint.
Through these multidimensional observation perspectives, the Zero Theory deepens the understanding of the universe's fractal structure and energy circulation.
1.3 Fractal Structure and SelfOrganization
The fractal structure of the universe is formed through selforganization. Interactions driven by gravity and energy exchange organize galaxies and galaxy clusters hierarchically, facilitating efficient energy distribution. This structure is expressed by the following scaling laws:
\[ M(R) \propto R^D \quad \text{and} \quad N(R) \propto R^D \]
Here, \(M(R)\) represents the mass within radius \(R\), and \(N(R)\) represents the number of galaxies within radius \(R\), with \(D\) being the fractal dimension. This scaling law demonstrates that the distribution of galaxies has a fractal structure, which explains the efficient energy distribution in the evolution of the universe.
1.4 Reinterpretation of Dark Energy
The interpretation of dark energy in the Zero Theory differs significantly from the current ΛCDM model. In the ΛCDM model, dark energy is considered the primary factor causing the accelerated expansion of the universe, while in the Zero Theory, it is interpreted as a result of energy exchange.
\[ \rho_{\text{dark energy}}(t) = f(a(t)) \cdot \rho_{\text{energy exchange}}(t) \]
 In the Zero Theory, the expansion of the universe itself is driven by external factors, and the term corresponding to dark energy, \( \rho_{\text{energy exchange}} \), represents the energy exchange that occurs as a result of expansion. As the universe expands, energy is generated from vacuum fluctuations caused by fluctuations in the matter and antimatter densities, and energy is exchanged.
 In the ΛCDM model, dark energy is considered to exist uniformly throughout the universe and is viewed as the main factor driving expansion. The ΛCDM model posits that dark energy directly causes the expansion of the universe and is seen as the fundamental cause of expansion.
The Zero Theory suggests that energy exchange does not directly trigger expansion, but rather occurs as a result of expansion caused by external factors. This mechanism of energy exchange explains the process by which energy is generated and annihilated between matter and antimatter.
2. Equations and Theoretical Background of the Zero Theory
Friedmann Equation for Expansion and Contraction
In the Zero Theory, the Friedmann equation is modified to quantitatively describe the expansion and contraction of the universe, as shown below:
\[ \left(\frac{\dot{a}}{a}\right)^2 = \frac{8 \pi G}{3} \left(\rho_{\text{matter}} + \rho_{\text{antimatter}} + \rho_{\text{energy exchange}}\right)  \frac{k}{a^2} \]
This modified Friedmann equation indicates that the expansion and contraction of the universe are controlled by the energy of matter, antimatter, and energy exchange.
Acceleration Equation for Expansion and Contraction
The acceleration of the universe's expansion and contraction is described by the following equation:
\[ \frac{d^2 a}{dt^2} =  \frac{4 \pi G}{3} \left(\rho_{\text{total}} + 3p_{\text{total}}\right) \]
This equation shows how the energy density and pressure of matter and antimatter contribute to the accelerated expansion or contraction of the universe.
3. Energy Fluctuations due to the Uncertainty Principle
The uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics influences the universe's energy exchange process, introducing fluctuations into the cycle of expansion and contraction.
\[ \Delta E \Delta t \geq \frac{\hbar}{2} \]
This principle introduces random fluctuations in the efficiency and timing of energy exchange, explaining why the expansion and contraction of the universe form an unstable pattern without a perfect cycle.
4. A New Perspective on the Propagation of Light and the Curvature of the Universe
In the Zero Theory, the universe is assumed to have a shape close to a sphere, but its internal structure is flat. As a result, the propagation of light continues in a straight line, and the conventional concept of light bending due to curvature is not considered.
Moreover, even if the universe has curvature, it is difficult to detect relative changes in curvature because both the observer and the photons follow the same reference frame. Local phenomena such as the bending of light due to distortions around black holes or galaxies are interpreted as different from the overall curvature of the universe.
5. Observational Consistency and Challenges of the New Theory
The Zero Theory explains the expansion and contraction of the entire universe based on the law of conservation of energy. By introducing external energy exchange processes, it may also naturally explain the differences in expansion rates observed in local and distant regions of the universe (the Hubble tension problem). However, this theory still requires observational evidence and theoretical validation, and further research is needed.
The Relationship Between Vacuum Fluctuation and Matter Creation
1. Basic Concept of Vacuum Fluctuation
Current Theory Definition:
Vacuum fluctuation refers to a quantum mechanical phenomenon where energy is "borrowed" for a short period, and particleantiparticle pairs are created. This phenomenon is closely related to the expansion of the universe and energy fluctuations.
Zero Theory Perspective:
In Zero Theory, it is suggested that particleantiparticle pairs created by vacuum fluctuations may exist as a "universe generated by fluctuations." This implies that the entire universe is a medium generated by vacuum fluctuations and could be part of a multiverse, where different perspectives are provided depending on the observer's location.
2. Relationship Between Observation Points and Multiverse Theory
Universe Generated by Fluctuation:
Definition:
The "universe generated by fluctuation" refers to a concept where the material medium created from vacuum fluctuation is assumed to be the multiverse itself, unlike the fluctuations that occur within the universe after the Big Bang (e.g., galaxy formation).
Observation Point A and A':
Observation Point A:
The viewpoint of observing the matter generated by vacuum fluctuation from the outside.
Observation Point A':
The viewpoint of observing the universe from within the universe generated by fluctuation.
Understanding from Zero Theory:
Zero Theory hypothesizes that our universe might also be observed from another dimension as a vacuum fluctuation, suggesting that we might be at Observation Point A'.
3. Classification of Phenomena Generated by Vacuum Fluctuations
 Fusion and Annihilation Type:
The phenomenon where matter and antimatter collide and annihilate, potentially directly involved in the creation and contraction of the universe.  Disappearing Type:
A phenomenon like photons or electromagnetic waves, where due to their small mass, contraction energy is insufficient, and they do not attract their source, thus merging with other phenomena. This aligns with the perspective of viewing the vacuum as a single medium and does not affect the overall conservation of energy.
4. Relationship Between Zero Theory and the Multiverse

Energy Balance and Zero:
The core of Zero Theory suggests that the energy balance "0 = +∞ − ∞" eventually returns to zero. This indicates that positive and negative energies contribute to the formation of the multiverse.  Understanding of the Multiverse:
By considering the vacuum as a single medium, it is understood that the total mass or energy of the system does not change even as they interact. According to this theory, no matter how energy is transformed, the total mass of the universe remains constant.
5. Nonlocality and the Concept of a Single Medium
Basic Concept of Nonlocality:
Quantum Nonlocality:
Refers to the phenomenon where distant particles interact instantaneously through quantum entanglement, implying that information is transmitted nonlocally.
Perspective of a Single Medium:
When the vacuum is considered a single medium, it is possible for energy and information to be exchanged nonlocally within that medium. In this case, the total mass and energy of the entire space are believed to remain unchanged.
6. Mechanism of Energy Creation and Annihilation
 Creation of Energy:
Virtual particle pairs generated by vacuum fluctuations are shortlived, and momentary energy creation can be observed. Zero Theory suggests that the creation and annihilation of energy cancel each other out, maintaining a zeroenergy state.  Annihilation of Energy:
When matter and antimatter pairs merge, energy is released, which becomes the process of energy dissipation.  Consistency with the Law of Conservation of Energy:
Energy is neither created nor destroyed but only changes form. The creation and annihilation of energy in vacuum fluctuations also follow this law.
7. Energy Cycle
 Expansion:
Energy generation due to vacuum fluctuations promotes the expansion of the universe.  Contraction:
As the expansion of the universe progresses, energy tends to return to zero, and eventually, the universe is thought to contract.  Overall Mass:
As the matterantimatter pairs generated by vacuum fluctuations disappear, the change in total mass is offset, and the law of energy conservation ensures that the total mass and energy remain constant.
Relationship Between Zero Theory and Current Theory
Concepts in Current Theory:
 Vacuum Fluctuation:
A phenomenon in quantum mechanics where energy is temporarily borrowed, and particleantiparticle pairs are created. It is also related to the expansion of the universe and energy fluctuations.  Conservation of Energy:
The law of conservation of energy states that energy is neither created nor destroyed but only transformed. Vacuum fluctuations are explained as a shortterm "borrowing" of energy.
Perspective of Zero Theory:
 Part of Energy Transformation:
In Zero Theory, it is not merely the "zeroenergy state" that is explored, but rather the process of energy transformation. This theory seeks to clarify how energy transitions from nothingness into existence.
 Creating Something from Nothing:
The central focus of Zero Theory is to explain how energy or matter transforms from "nothing" into "something." This theory aims to provide a detailed explanation of this process and how it aligns with existing physics.
 Explanation and Clarification:
Zero Theory is focused on explaining physical phenomena and clarifying the concept of creating something from nothing. This is an attempt to offer new perspectives and understanding that go beyond the current framework of theory.
Overview of the ZeroEnergy State
ZeroEnergy State in Zero Theory  Definition and Related Elements
Definition of the ZeroEnergy State
The zeroenergy state is not a physically perfect "zero," but rather a dynamic state where energy conversion and cancellation occur. It refers to a highly energetic and unstable state where positive infinity and negative infinity energies combine. This state is understood as a temporary transition point in the process of energy conversion.
Law of Conservation of Energy
Fundamental Principle:
According to the law of conservation of energy, energy is neither created nor destroyed but only changes form. The zeroenergy state also follows this law, being a state where the creation and destruction of energy are balanced.
Feasibility of the ZeroEnergy State
Achieving a completely zeroenergy state is extremely difficult physically. This is akin to the challenge of pinpointing the location of electrons or photons. Due to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, it is impossible to measure both the position and momentum of an electron or photon with perfect accuracy, and similarly, it is difficult to maintain a state where energy is entirely zero. However, theoretically, it is possible to understand the zeroenergy state as a state where energy transformations are balanced. In other words, the zeroenergy state is not absolute stillness but rather a dynamically balanced state where energy offsets itself.
Energy Conversion Mechanism
Creation and Destruction:
The zeroenergy state is explained as a process where the creation and destruction of energy cancel each other out. Matter and antimatter pairs are generated and annihilated, transforming energy while preserving the overall energy balance.
Conversion Process:
Energy transitions between various forms, and through the repeated processes of creation and annihilation, the zeroenergy state is formed.
Feasibility of the ZeroEnergy State
Consistency with the Law of Conservation of Energy:
The zeroenergy state is part of the process of energy conversion, theoretically appearing as zero as a result. During the process of energy creation and destruction, the balance of energy is maintained, adhering to the law of conservation of energy.
Theoretical Model:
Theoretically, models and simulations are needed to explain the zeroenergy state.
Integration of Zero Theory's ZeroEnergy State with Current Theories
Quantum Fluctuation and the ZeroEnergy State
Quantum Fluctuation:
In quantum mechanics, the vacuum is not a perfect "nothingness" but a state in which energy fluctuations constantly occur. Particleantiparticle pairs are momentarily created and annihilated, causing the vacuum to always fluctuate.
Relation to the ZeroEnergy State:
In Zero Theory, the zeroenergy state is also a dynamic state where energy creation and destruction are balanced. Therefore, the zeroenergy state is interpreted as including the instability of the vacuum caused by quantum fluctuations.
Energy Uncertainty and the ZeroEnergy State
Energy Uncertainty:
According to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, it is theoretically impossible to maintain a state where energy is precisely zero. Thus, vacuum energy always includes slight fluctuations.
Relation to the ZeroEnergy State:
The zeroenergy state, too, does not mean that energy is completely zero. It is a dynamic state where the creation and destruction of energy are balanced. The uncertainty principle is one of the reasons why the zeroenergy state cannot remain static.
Progress and Prospects of the Theory
Zero Theory aims to explain phenomena that cannot be accounted for by the current framework of physics and offers new interpretations of vacuum energy and dark energy. Future research and observations are expected to further substantiate the theory and advance our understanding.
Feasibility of the ZeroEnergy State
 Feasibility of the ZeroEnergy State in Relation to the Law of Conservation of Energy
Question:
Based on the law of conservation of energy, is the zeroenergy state feasible?
Answer:
Like vacuum fluctuations, "zero" (vacuum) is not merely "nothing" but a ground state with energy. According to the law of conservation of energy, energy is not created but only transformed. Although it is difficult to observe a completely "zero" zeroenergy state, there is a possibility that a zeroenergy state could be realized through the mutual cancellation of energy creation and destruction. Specifically, as matterantimatter pairs are created and annihilated, the balance of energy is maintained, forming a state that is, in total, considered "zeroenergy."
 Mechanism of Energy Conversion
Question:
How is the zeroenergy state explained as a mechanism of energy conversion?
Answer:
The zeroenergy state is understood as a process where energy creation and destruction cancel each other out. For example, matterantimatter pairs are generated for a short time and then annihilated, during which energy conversion takes place. As a result, the total amount of energy remains constant, and this can be interpreted as a zeroenergy state.
To understand the energy conversion mechanism in the zeroenergy state, an analogy can be used:
Analogy:
When an object falls, its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy, keeping the total energy constant. Similarly, in the zeroenergy state, the creation and destruction of energy cancel each other out, and the total energy remains zero. Capturing this is as challenging as accurately determining the position of a falling object amidst constant movement.
 Quantum Field Theory (QFT) and ZeroEnergy
Question:
How does quantum field theory contribute to understanding the zeroenergy state?
Answer:
In quantum field theory, the vacuum state is defined as the ground state with energy, and zeropoint energy exists. Due to vacuum fluctuations, virtual particles are created and annihilated, causing energy conversion. This suggests that the zeroenergy state is not entirely zero and is understood as a state where energy fluctuates.
 Uncertainty Principle and ZeroEnergy
Question:
How does the uncertainty principle affect the realization of the zeroenergy state?
Answer:
According to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, there is uncertainty between energy and time, allowing for the "borrowing" of energy over a short period. Therefore, a state close to zero energy may appear temporarily, but due to uncertainty, the realization of a completely zeroenergy state is considered difficult.
 Vacuum Fluctuations and ZeroEnergy
Question:
How are vacuum fluctuations related to the zeroenergy state?
Answer:
Vacuum fluctuations are a state in which energy creation and destruction constantly occur. The zeroenergy state suggests that vacuum energy is not zero, but energy is balanced. Through vacuum fluctuations, matterantimatter pairs are generated and annihilated, causing energy conversion.
Conclusion
The feasibility of the zeroenergy state can be considered from the perspectives of the law of conservation of energy, energy conversion mechanisms, quantum field theory, the uncertainty principle, and vacuum fluctuations. Whether a completely zeroenergy state can be realized is unknown, but the zeroenergy state may be understood as a state in which energy creation and destruction balance each other, theoretically forming a process of energy transformation. This is similar to the difficulty of pinpointing the location of a moving electron.
A New Concept of Dark Energy
Dark Energy and the ExpansionContraction Cycle in Zero Theory
Interpretation of Energy Exchange in the Zero Theory
In the Zero Theory, the expansion of the universe is triggered by external factors, and the term corresponding to dark energy, \(\rho_{\text{energy exchange}}\), represents the energy exchange resulting from this expansion. This energy exchange is activated by vacuum fluctuations accompanying changes in the density of matter and antimatter. Due to these fluctuations, pairs of particles and antiparticles are generated and annihilated, forming the basis of the energy exchange process.
The energy density from vacuum fluctuations usually diverges to infinity. To address this, a cutoff at the Planck energy is introduced to make the energy density based on vacuum fluctuations finite and physically meaningful. Specifically, the energy density is calculated as follows:
\[ \rho_{\text{vacuum fluctuations}}(t) = \int_{0}^{E_P} \frac{g(E) E}{(2\pi)^3} dE \]
Here, \( E_P \) represents the Planck energy, a cutoff based on physical scales. This cutoff prevents the vacuum energy density from diverging to infinity, maintaining the consistency of the theory.
Specifically, as the universe expands, the density decreases, leading to the occurrence of vacuum fluctuations. These fluctuations are similar to those that occurred just after the Big Bang and involve the generation and annihilation of energy. As the expansion progresses, energy is exchanged between matter and antimatter, potentially influencing the formation of largescale structures and the distribution of matter in the universe.
In equations, the energy exchange process is described as follows:
\[ \rho_{\text{energy exchange}}(t) = f(a(t)) \cdot \rho_{\text{vacuum fluctuations}}(t) \]
 \(f(a(t))\) is a function dependent on the scale factor \(a(t)\), indicating the influence of vacuum fluctuations during expansion.
 \(\rho_{\text{vacuum fluctuations}}(t)\) is the energy density caused by vacuum fluctuations.
This energy exchange process is a dynamic one where energy is generated and annihilated between matter and antimatter, occurring as a result of the expansion. In the Zero Theory, this energy exchange is equivalent to dark energy, though it does not directly cause the expansion itself. The expansion is triggered by external factors, and energy exchange is activated as a result.
Interpretation of Dark Energy in the Current ΛCDM Model
In the current ΛCDM model, dark energy is introduced to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. Dark energy \(\rho_{\text{dark energy}}\) is considered to be uniformly distributed throughout the universe and is the main cause of the acceleration of cosmic expansion. Dark energy is directly incorporated into the Friedmann equation, playing the role of driving the accelerated expansion.
Comparison of Interpretations Reflecting the Theoretical Differences
Summary of the Theories
In the Zero Theory, the energy exchange equivalent to dark energy is a secondary phenomenon arising from the expansion of the universe. Vacuum fluctuations occur due to changes in the density of matter and antimatter, leading to energy exchange. This process is similar to the fluctuations that occurred after the Big Bang and affects the evolution of the universe, but it does not cause the expansion itself.
Based on this idea, the Friedmann equation in the Zero Theory is described as follows:
\[ H^2(t) = \frac{8\pi G}{3} \left[ \rho_{\text{matter}}(t) + \rho_{\text{radiation}}(t) + f(a(t)) \cdot \rho_{\text{vacuum fluctuations}}(t) \right]  \frac{k}{a^2(t)} \]
This equation specifically represents the impact of energy exchange due to vacuum fluctuations on the expansion of the universe. In contrast, in the ΛCDM model, dark energy is considered the primary driver of cosmic expansion, directly causing the acceleration.
Summary of the Theories
Introduction of the Equation of State
It is also essential to consider the equation of state for dark energy. In the ΛCDM model, the equation of state parameter for dark energy \( w \) is always \( w = 1 \), meaning that the density of dark energy remains constant. However, in the Zero Theory, the equation of state parameter \( w \) is allowed to vary with time or depend on the scale factor \( a(t) \).
The equation of state is expressed as follows:
\[ p = w \rho \]
Here, \( p \) represents pressure, and \( \rho \) represents energy density. In the Zero Theory, the time variability of \( w \) or its dependence on the scale factor plays a role in describing the dynamic nature of dark energy.
Modeling Energy Conservation and Energy Exchange
Energy Exchange Dependent on the Scale Factor
By incorporating energy exchange into the law of energy conservation (continuity equation), the dynamics of energy conservation in the universe can be explained. The energy conservation equation in the Zero Theory is represented as follows:
\[ \dot{\rho}_{\text{total}} + 3H (\rho_{\text{total}} + p_{\text{total}}) = Q(t) \]
Here, \( Q(t) \) is a source term for energy exchange, indicating how energy exchange is involved in the law of energy conservation.
To quantitatively model the energy exchange process, the following equation is used:
\[ Q(t) = \gamma \cdot \rho_{\text{energy exchange}}(t) \cdot H(t) \]
This equation expresses that energy exchange occurs in proportion to the Hubble parameter \( H(t) \) and energy density. \( \gamma \) is a constant representing the efficiency of energy exchange.
Energy Exchange Dependent on the Scale Factor
Introduction of the Function
In the Zero Theory, the strength of energy exchange is considered to depend on the scale factor \( a(t) \). The function \( f(a(t)) \), dependent on the scale factor, describes how energy exchange decays over time.
The following function is introduced to model this:
\[ f(a(t)) = e^{\beta a(t)} \]
Here, \( \beta \) is a constant representing the decay rate of energy exchange. This model shows that energy exchange decreases exponentially as the scale factor increases.
The attractive forces in Zero Theory can be divided into the following two types:
The + and  Forces:
Definition: An attractive force resulting from the interaction between positive (+) and negative () energy within the cosmic medium.
Concept: This represents a mechanism where the interaction between positive and negative energy states generates an attractive force through the transformation of mass and energy.
Forces Due to Energy Transformation:
Definition: An attractive force arising when the transformation of energy distorts the cosmic medium.
Concept: The transformation of energy causes distortions in the medium (spacetime), which in turn generate attractive forces. This indicates that local changes in energy affect the medium as a whole.
The mechanisms behind these two forces are based on different energy transformations and interactions within the framework of Zero Theory. Both are key elements in explaining the dynamics of the universe.
Analogy between General Relativity and Zero Theory
Gravitational Explanation in General Relativity:
Curvature of Space: In Einstein’s General Relativity, mass and energy bend spacetime, and this curvature acts as gravitational force on other objects. Heavier objects bend spacetime more, causing nearby objects to move along this curvature.
Analogy in Zero Theory:
Yarn and Pattern Analogy: In Zero Theory, the universe is seen as a "medium" like yarn, with energy transformations "weaving" patterns into this medium. The formation of these patterns pulls surrounding energy and matter, generating an attractive force. These patterns represent vibrations or transformations of energy within the medium, demonstrating how attractive forces arise.
Detailed Explanation of the Analogy:
Yarn Vibration and Gravity: In Zero Theory, energy transformations cause the medium (yarn) to vibrate, and this process materializes into patterns similar to gravitational phenomena. These vibrations affect the entire universe, explaining the attraction between objects. The energy transformation alters the properties of the medium, leading to the formation of gravitational forces.
Universality of the Medium: In Zero Theory, the medium (yarn) pervades the entire universe. Distortions in this medium due to energy transformations give rise to forces like gravity. This explanation holds even for extreme energy states like black holes.
Observation of Big Bang Energy
 Legacy of Energy: The energy from the Big Bang is still observable because it spread uniformly throughout the universe and remains as relatively large energy sources. Traces of this energy are still detectable in phenomena like background radiation and the largescale structure of the universe.
Conclusion
In General Relativity, gravity is explained by the curvature of spacetime caused by mass and energy. In contrast, Zero Theory posits that energy transformations cause vibrations in the medium (yarn), and these vibrations generate forces similar to gravity. The energy from the Big Bang is still observable as it spread across the universe and remains as significant energy sources. This analogy helps us understand how the mechanism of gravity is explained differently in various theories.
Interpretation of Attraction in the Framework of Zero Theory
1. The Perspective of the Cosmic Medium:
In Zero Theory, the universe itself can be seen as a "medium." This "medium" functions as the foundation for space, time, and energy, and various physical phenomena are thought to occur within this medium. When attractive forces are understood as transformations of this "cosmic medium," they can be interpreted as follows:
Origin of Attractive Forces: In Zero Theory, the interaction between + and  cosmic media generates attractive forces. Here, "+" and "" represent states of energy transformation or fluctuations within the medium.
Phenomena on a Macro Scale: Attraction on a cosmic scale is understood as the result of energy circulation and transformation in Zero Theory. The attractive forces stem from fluctuations in the medium or the distribution of energy, manifesting as phenomena observable on a macro scale.
2. The Role of Gravity in Zero Theory:
Within the framework of Zero Theory, gravity can be interpreted as follows:
Result of Energy Transformation: Gravity is seen as a force emerging from energy transformation and fluctuations within Zero Theory. Gravity arises from the interaction of mass and energy within the medium.
Effects on a Macro Scale: Since the entire universe is considered a "medium," gravity arises from the redistribution and transformation of energy within this medium, leading to observable attraction between objects on a macro scale.
3. Zero Theory and the Attraction of + and 
The following elements are related to how Zero Theory explains attractive forces:
Energy Transformation and Interaction: If attractive forces are explained as interactions between + and  cosmic media, they can be understood as the result of energy transformation or fluctuations.
Mechanism of Attraction: Within the framework of Zero Theory, attractive forces are explained as the interaction of energy within the medium, which manifests as changes in the distribution of mass or energy.
Conclusion
In Zero Theory, the interpretation of attractive forces is based on viewing the entire universe as a "medium" and understanding these forces as arising from energy transformation and fluctuations. The interaction between + and  cosmic media serves as the source of attractive forces, which are observed as phenomena on a macro scale. In this view, attractive forces emerge as a result of energy redistribution and transformation within the medium.
Theoretical Consistency of Attractive Forces in Zero Theory
When evaluating the theoretical consistency of attractive forces in Zero Theory, the following points are crucial:
1. Consistency within the Framework of Zero Theory
Energy Transformation and Attraction: Zero Theory views the universe as a "medium," where energy transformation and fluctuations generate attractive forces. The explanation that these forces result from energy redistribution or transformation is consistent within the theory.
Fluctuations in the Medium: In this theory, attractive forces emerge as interactions between + and  cosmic media, making the generation of forces due to fluctuations or energy changes in the medium a theoretically consistent explanation.
Application on a Macro Scale:
Cosmic Scale: Since Zero Theory treats the entire universe as a medium, the attractive forces on a macro scale are explained as energy transformations within this medium. This aligns with macroscale phenomena such as gravity or attraction.
2. Consistency with Other Theories:
Consistency with Relativity: In General Relativity, gravity arises from the bending of spacetime by mass. If Zero Theory explains gravity as energy transformation, it may be consistent with the curvature of spacetime described in relativity. However, how Zero Theory explains spacetime curvature will be critical.
Conservation of Energy: For Zero Theory to be consistent with relativity, the conservation of energy must align. If energy transformation in Zero Theory adheres to the law of conservation, consistency is maintained.
Consistency with Quantum Mechanics:
Quantum Entanglement and Energy Transformation: The relationship between quantum entanglement and energy states in quantum mechanics needs to be explained within the framework of Zero Theory. If quantum entanglement can be understood as energy transformation, consistency with established quantum mechanics results is required.
3. Experimental Verification:
Matching Experimental Data: To confirm theoretical consistency, the theory must match experimental data. The attractive forces or energy transformations predicted by Zero Theory must align with observational data or experimental results.
New Experimental Approaches: New experiments or observations are needed to test the predictions of Zero Theory. This could include precise measurements of energy transformations or attractive forces.
Conclusion
The theoretical consistency of attractive forces in Zero Theory depends on the following:
The explanation that energy transformations and fluctuations in the medium generate attractive forces.
An explanation that aligns with macroscale phenomena.
Consistency with General Relativity and quantum mechanics.
Agreement with experimental data.
If the theory is correct, all these elements will align, providing a theoretically coherent explanation.
Comparison with Dark Energy, Dark Matter, and Relativity
1. Dark Energy:
Concept: Dark energy is the energy thought to be responsible for accelerating the expansion of the universe, distributed uniformly across space.
Relation to Zero Theory:
Energy Vibrations: In Zero Theory, the expansion of the universe or changes in gravity may be explained by energy vibrations or transformations in the cosmic medium. The effects of dark energy could potentially be understood as energy transformations in the Zero Theory medium.
Relationship to Gravity: While dark energy is thought to counteract the effects of gravity, in Zero Theory, gravity is generated by energy vibrations or transformations. The influence of dark energy may also be explained through changes in this medium.
2. Dark Matter:
Concept: Dark matter is invisible but has mass, interacting with ordinary matter through gravity. It influences the motion of galaxies and galaxy clusters.
Relation to Zero Theory:
Energy Vibrations: In Zero Theory, the existence of matter and gravity is explained by energy vibrations or transformations. The gravitational effects of dark matter could be understood as the influence of energy transformations in the cosmic medium.
Relationship to Gravity: Dark matter interacts with matter through gravity, and in Zero Theory, gravity is generated by vibrations or transformations of the cosmic medium. The effects of dark matter could also be explained as energy transformations within this medium.
3. General Relativity:
Concept: In General Relativity, gravity is caused by the bending of spacetime due to mass and energy. The motion of objects is determined by this curved spacetime.
Relation to Zero Theory:
Energy Vibrations: In Zero Theory, energy vibrations cause changes in spacetime (the cosmic medium). These changes manifest as gravity or the existence of matter, proposing a mechanism similar to spacetime curvature in General Relativity.
Relation to Photons: In relativity, light's path is influenced by the curvature of spacetime. In Zero Theory, the transmission of light is also affected by the vibrations or transformations of the cosmic medium, linking the movement of photons to changes in energy.
4. Conclusion:
Zero Theory provides an explanation for dark energy and dark matter by suggesting they are due to energy transformations in the cosmic medium. It also offers a new interpretation of General Relativity by framing gravity and the curvature of spacetime as energy vibrations in this medium. The relationship between gravity, light, and energy in Zero Theory might be consistent with the behavior of spacetime in General Relativity. Ultimately, testing this theory against observational data will be key to confirming or refining its claims.
Periodicity and Speed of Cycles
Theoretical Background
In the Zero Energy Cycle Theory, the expansion and contraction of the universe are assumed to be the "fluctuations of the vacuum" itself. This theory suggests that, much like vacuum fluctuations, the Big Bang and Big Crunch are generated through a similar mechanism. Positive and negative energy are produced, initiating the expansion, which is then followed by contraction.
Definition and Equation of the Cycle
The cycle period is defined by the following equation:
T=Size/Time
Where:
 "Size" refers to a quantity related to the characteristics of the cycle (such as the amount of energy).
 "Time" refers to the time required to complete the cycle.
This equation helps to conceptualize the fluctuations in the vacuum and the universe observed from a point of observation as the same phenomenon.
Consistency
This definition aligns as a formula for relating the characteristics (size) of a cycle to its period (time). Defining the cycle period as the ratio between "size" and "time" allows for a quantitative understanding of the dynamic nature of the cycle. It also provides a mathematical basis for understanding the phenomenon of smallscale vacuum fluctuations and the universe as existing under the same framework.
Vacuum Fluctuations and the Universe's Cycle
 Vacuum Fluctuations: The creation and annihilation of particleantiparticle pairs due to vacuum fluctuations influence the period of the cycle. This could relate to the processes of universe creation and annihilation.
 Big Bang and Big Crunch: The Big Bang and Big Crunch (the contraction of the universe) are tied to the creation and annihilation mechanisms of the cycle. The period of this cycle is suggested to align with vacuum fluctuations.
Differences in Time Due to the Observation Point
 Influence of Observation Point: As the flow of time may vary depending on the observation point, the cycles of creation and annihilation due to vacuum fluctuations, as well as the cycles of the universe’s creation and annihilation, might be measured with the same period at different observation points.
Point A and Point A':
 Point A: A point observing matter generated by vacuum fluctuations.
 Point A': A point inside the fluctuation, observing matter generated by the vacuum fluctuations.
This theory implies that the time for cycles observed at Point A and Point A' might be exactly the same.
Conclusion
The period of a cycle is determined by the relationship between size and time. It is suggested that the vacuum fluctuations and the cycles of universe creation and annihilation are related, and even if the flow of time differs at different observation points, the cycle period might be consistent. From this perspective, the periodicity of the cycle may theoretically align with both vacuum fluctuations and cosmic cycles.
However, like the fluctuations generated within the vacuum, each possesses different cycle periods. Some may not fuse back with the source.
Related Addendum: Uncertainty Principle and Energy Fluctuations
Uncertainty Principle
The uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics is expressed as:
ΔE ⋅ Δt ≥ ℏ 2
where:
 ΔE is the uncertainty in energy (the range of energy fluctuations)
 Δt is the uncertainty in time (the duration over which the energy fluctuation occurs)
 ℏ is the reduced Planck constant.
Vacuum Fluctuations and Energy
Energy Fluctuations on Short Time Scales: When vacuum fluctuations occur on extremely short time scales, the energy fluctuation becomes large. This is due to the inverse proportionality between energy and time, as derived from the uncertainty principle.
Borrowing of Energy: In brief periods, borrowing energy allows particleantiparticle pairs to form, which can be observed as vacuum fluctuations with rapid energy changes.
Universe Expansion: Current Understanding and Future Changes
Current Observations and Theories
Accelerated Expansion Observations:
Supernova Observation: Observations from 1998 revealed that distant Type Ia supernovae appeared dimmer than expected, leading to the conclusion that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.
Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): Data from WMAP and Planck satellites regarding the CMB provide essential information about the early universe and the current rate of expansion. Fluctuations and polarization in the CMB data support cosmological models indicating accelerated expansion.
Role of Dark Energy:
ΛCDM Model: The current cosmological model, ΛCDM (Lambda Cold Dark Matter), explains that dark energy drives the accelerated expansion of the universe. Dark energy is considered to be uniformly distributed throughout space, causing the acceleration.
Possible Future Changes
Limits of Observation and Data Uncertainty:
Time for Light to Reach Us: Current observations rely on light and electromagnetic waves traveling long distances to reach Earth. The current state of expansion observed may not fully reflect the future situation.
Unobserved Regions: There may be regions or phenomena that current technology cannot observe, necessitating advances in observation techniques.
Potential Theoretical Modifications:
Dynamic Dark Energy: While current theory assumes dark energy has a constant energy density, future discoveries may suggest changes in its nature. For example, dynamic dark energy models or "quintessence" could imply changes in the acceleration of expansion over time.
Big Rip Scenario: In the Big Rip scenario, the density of dark energy increases rapidly over time, ultimately tearing the universe apart. This model indicates that the expansion could change dramatically in the future.
In Zero Theory, the vacuum itself is hypothesized as the medium through which gravity and photons propagate (energy conversion).
Time Relativity and Consistency with Modern Physics
Relativity of Time:
Time within the universe progresses differently depending on the observation point, meaning that when measuring the duration of cycles, it is essential to consider these time differences.
Big Bang and Big Crunch: In Zero Theory, vacuum fluctuations treat the Big Bang and Big Crunch as similar phenomena. Verifying this alignment with current cosmological theories requires further testing.
Energy Conservation: Zero Theory assumes that energy is created from zero and returns to zero, adhering to the law of energy conservation. However, the realization of a complete zeroenergy state remains unresolved.
Considerations on the Integration of Zero Theory with Relativity and Quantum Theory
Relation to Relativity Theory
General Relativity: Gravity is explained as the curvature of spacetime, where mass and energy distort spacetime, creating gravity. It deals with largescale phenomena such as black holes and the expansion of the universe, but integrating it with microscopic behaviors at the quantum scale is challenging.
Vacuum Fluctuations and Observation: The lifespan and size of matter due to vacuum fluctuations depend on the state of the universe in which the observer resides. Fluctuations that seem instantaneous from our current universe might span a long duration in a different universe. This suggests differences in time scales and sizes in the fluctuation's internal universe.
Consistency with the Law of Conservation of Energy
EnergyTime Uncertainty Principle: There is a principle allowing relatively large energy fluctuations over short timescales. In zero theory, the creation and annihilation of energy (matter) are possible, leading to a redefinition of traditional energy conservation laws from a new perspective. Energy transformation and fluctuations might function as new elements of energy conservation.
Empirical Validation and Unverified Aspects
Currently Verified Phenomena: Observations of vacuum energy, the Casimir effect, virtual particle creation, and Hawking radiation suggest possible connections to the energy transformations and fluctuations proposed by zero theory.
Evolution of Theory and New Perspectives: Zero theory offers new perspectives for explaining phenomena that current physics frameworks cannot. It might provide new interpretations of vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, and gravitons.
Integration of Theories: New perspectives on energy cycles in zero theory might offer clues for integrating quantum mechanics and relativity. The development of new experimental techniques is needed and could significantly contribute to advances in experimental physics.
Problems with Integrating Relativity and Quantum Theory
Differences in Fundamental Concepts:
Space and Time Concept:
Relativity Theory: Gravity is understood through spacetime curvature.
Quantum Theory: Space and time are treated as fixed backgrounds with particles' probabilistic behaviors.
Determinism and Probability:
Relativity Theory: Essentially deterministic.
Quantum Theory: Essentially probabilistic.
Differences in Theory Scales:
Relativity Theory: Deals with largescale phenomena (black holes, cosmic expansion).
Quantum Theory: Deals with atomic and subatomic levels.
Incomplete Quantum Gravity Theory: Integrating relativity and quantum theory requires a quantum gravity theory, which is still incomplete and presents consistency issues.
Computational and Predictive Difficulties:
Black Hole Information Paradox: Issues with information loss and contradictions at the event horizon.
NonCommutativity: Differences between relativity theory’s continuity and quantum theory’s uncertainty principle.
Mathematical Consistency Issues: Theoretical integration is proposed in string theory and Mtheory but may take time for experimental validation.
Experimental Verification Challenges: Difficulties in observing phenomena at high energies, especially at the Planck scale, present technological challenges.
Perspective on Integration through Zero Theory
Basic Concepts of Zero Theory:
Zero Energy State: A balanced state where infinite positive and infinite negative energies cancel each other out.
Vacuum Fluctuations: The vacuum is described as a dynamic state involving energy transformations and fluctuations.
Considerations for Integration:
Integration of Energy and Spacetime: From the zero theory perspective, energy transformation and spacetime curvature can be seen as related.
Disappearance of Black Holes: The disappearance of black holes can be viewed as a natural transformation into a state of energy.
Integration of Quantum Theory and Energy: Zero theory's view of vacuum fluctuations and nonlocal energy interactions might align with quantum theory.
Quantum Gravity: Zero theory's connection between energy and spacetime may promote understanding in quantum gravity theories.
Experimental Validation and Predictions:
New Experiments: New observations of vacuum energy density and black hole behavior are needed to validate zero theory’s predictions.
Integration of Gravity and Quantum Mechanics: From zero theory's viewpoint, integrating gravity and quantum mechanics involves exploring how these waves interact and maintain the energy balance forming the universe.
Conclusion
In zero theory, gravity is understood as energy waves affecting the structure of the universe in a way consistent with quantum mechanics. Integrating gravity and quantum mechanics involves exploring how these waves interact and how they maintain the energy balance while shaping the universe. This approach could contribute to the development of quantum gravity theories and other unification theories.
New Theory: The Role of Vacuum Energy in Unifying All Phenomena through Energy Conversion
The new theory reinterprets the individual concepts of traditional physics (photons, gravity, dark energy, dark matter, gravitons, etc.) through the perspective that "everything can be explained by energy conversion." This approach, based on Einstein's famous energymass equivalence equation \(E=mc^2\), understands physical phenomena as a series of processes of energy conversion. Additionally, by applying Zero Theory to Einstein's equations, it delves deeper into how vacuum energy density influences the curvature of spacetime. This article elaborates on this new perspective, focusing on the dynamic role of vacuum energy, forces arising from energy conversion, the transmission of photons and gravity, the reinterpretation of dark energy and dark matter, the understanding of quantum entanglement, and the redefinition of the law of energy conservation.
1. Reinterpretation of Vacuum Energy
1.1 The Dynamic Role of Vacuum Energy as Energy Conversion
In traditional physics, the vacuum is often considered an empty space without energy. However, the new theory interprets the vacuum as a field with zeropoint energy fluctuations, viewing the vacuum itself as the primary stage for energy conversion. This perspective posits that fluctuations in the vacuum's energy density are the foundation for all physical phenomena.
Equation:
The expectation value of zeropoint energy is expressed as follows:
\[\langle 0  H  0 \rangle = \frac{1}{2} \sum_{k=0}^{k_{\text{max}}} \hbar \omega_k\]
This equation indicates that vacuum fluctuations cause finite energy variations. Here, the cutoff wave number \( k_{\text{max}} \) is set using the Planck length \( l_P \), preventing the divergence of vacuum energy to infinity.
\[k_{\text{max}} = \frac{1}{l_P}, \quad l_P = \sqrt{\frac{\hbar G}{c^3}}\]
This setting shows how energy conversion occurs at the smallest physical scale (Planck length), providing the foundation for the new theory.
2. Extension of Einstein's Equation with Zero Theory
2.1 Application of Zero Theory to Einstein's Equation
Applying Zero Theory to Einstein's equation clarifies that vacuum energy density directly influences the curvature of spacetime. In traditional general relativity, the distribution of matter and energy determines the structure of spacetime, but Zero Theory adds the influence of vacuum energy to this relationship.
Extended Einstein's Equation with Zero Theory:
\[G_{\mu\nu} = \frac{8\pi G}{c^4} \left( T_{\mu\nu}^{\text{matter}}  \rho_{\text{vac}} g_{\mu\nu} \right)\]
This equation shows that in addition to the distribution of matter and energy, the vacuum energy density \(\rho_{\text{vac}}\) contributes to the curvature of spacetime. It emphasizes that vacuum energy is not merely a background energy but a dynamic element actively shaping the structure of spacetime.
2.2 Relationship between Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant
In this extended equation, the dynamic changes in vacuum energy density play the role of dark energy, providing a deeper understanding beyond the traditional static cosmological constant \(\Lambda\). This naturally explains the accelerated expansion of the universe as a result of energy conversion.
3. Forces Arising from Energy Conversion
3.1 Definition: Attractive Forces Generated by Distortion of Cosmic Medium through Energy Conversion
Attractive forces that arise from the distortion of the cosmic medium caused by energy conversion.
3.2 Concept: The Mechanism by which Energy Conversion Distorts the Medium (Spacetime), Generating Attractive Forces
Energy conversion distorts the medium (spacetime), resulting in the generation of attractive forces. This mechanism demonstrates that local changes in energy affect the entire medium. The mechanisms of these two forces are based on different energy conversions and interactions within the framework of Zero Theory, making them essential elements for explaining the dynamics of the universe.
3.3 Analogy between General Relativity and Zero Theory
3.3.1 Explanation of Gravity in General Relativity
Curvature of Space:
In Einstein's general relativity, mass and energy curve spacetime, and this curvature exerts gravitational forces on other objects. The heavier an object, the more it curves the surrounding spacetime, causing other objects to move along these curves.
3.3.2 Analogy in Zero Theory
Thread and Pattern Analogy:
In Zero Theory, the universe is likened to a "medium" like a thread, with energy conversions "weaving" patterns into it. By weaving patterns into the thread, the surrounding energy and matter are drawn in, creating gravitationallike forces. These patterns represent the vibrations or conversions of energy within the medium, illustrating the mechanism by which attractive forces are generated.
3.4 Detailed Explanation of the Analogy
Vibrations of the Thread and Gravity:
In Zero Theory, energy conversion causes the medium (thread) to vibrate, creating "patterns" that manifest as gravitationallike phenomena. These vibrations influence the entire universe, explaining how energy conversions lead to the attraction between objects. This perspective views energy conversion as altering the properties of the medium, resulting in the emergence of gravitational forces.
Universality of the Medium:
In Zero Theory, the medium (thread) exists throughout the universe, and energy conversions within this medium distort it, generating forces similar to gravity. This universal presence allows energy conversions to influence the structure of spacetime consistently, providing a unified explanation for gravitational phenomena and energy interactions.
3.5 Understanding Gravity in Zero Theory
3.5.1 Origin of Attractive Forces:
In Zero Theory, attractive forces arise from the interaction between the cosmic medium and energy conversions. Here, the "cosmic medium" represents the state of energy conversion and fluctuations within the universe.
3.5.2 Macroscale Phenomena:
At cosmic scales, the attraction is considered a result of the circulation and conversion of energy within Zero Theory. Attractive forces are derived from the distortions and energy distributions in the medium, understood as phenomena observable at macroscopic scales.
3.6 Examination of Theoretical Consistency
3.6.1 Consistency within the Framework of Zero Theory
Energy Conversion and Attraction:
Zero Theory views the universe as a "medium," with energy conversions and fluctuations generating attractive forces. The explanation that attractive forces are a result of energy redistribution and conversion is consistent within the theory.
Fluctuations of the Medium:
In this theory, attractive forces emerge as interactions within the cosmic medium, meaning that fluctuations and energy variations within the medium directly generate these forces. This explains how attractive forces are produced as a consequence of energy transformations within the medium.
3.6.2 Consistency with Other Theories
Consistency with Relativity:
Gravity, explained by the curvature of spacetime in relativity, and gravity described in Zero Theory as vibrations or conversions in the cosmic medium, contribute to explaining the same phenomenon (gravity) through different mechanisms. While the mechanisms differ, both aim to describe the gravitational force's effects.
Consistency with Quantum Mechanics:
If quantum entanglement and state changes based on Zero Theory's energy conversion, they must align with established results in quantum mechanics. How Zero Theory integrates these phenomena within its framework is crucial for maintaining consistency with quantum theory.
3.6.3 Experimental Verification
Confirmation of Theoretical Consistency:
Alignment with experimental data is essential. Whether the forces and energy conversions predicted by Zero Theory match observations and experimental results is critical.
New Experimental Approaches:
To verify the new predictions of Zero Theory, new experiments and observations are required. This includes precise measurements of energy conversions and the resulting forces within the cosmic medium.
3.7 Conclusion
The interpretation of attractive forces within Zero Theory conceptualizes the universe as a "medium," with energy conversions and fluctuations generating these forces. This approach explains how attractive forces emerge as a result of energy redistribution and conversion within the medium, providing a clear explanation of how these forces influence the motion and dynamics of matter.
4. Relationship between Zero Theory and Dark Energy, Dark Matter
4.1 Dark Energy: Cosmic Expansion as Energy Conversion
Concept:
Dark energy is the energy responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. It is uniformly distributed throughout the cosmos and affects space itself.
Relation to Zero Theory:
 Energy Vibrations:
In Zero Theory, changes in cosmic expansion and gravitational variations are explained by the vibrations and conversions of energy within the cosmic medium. The effects of dark energy can potentially be understood as energy conversions within Zero Theory's cosmic medium.
 Relation to Gravity:
While dark energy works against the effects of gravity, Zero Theory explains gravity as arising from energy vibrations and conversions within the medium. The influence of dark energy could also be explained through these energy conversions within the medium.
4.2 Dark Matter
Concept:
Dark matter is traditionally considered a hypothetical substance that accounts for the missing mass required to form and sustain galaxies. It interacts through gravity but is invisible and does not emit, absorb, or reflect light.
Relation to Zero Theory:
 Energy Vibrations:
In Zero Theory, the presence and behavior of matter and gravity are explained by energy vibrations and conversions within the cosmic medium. The gravitational effects of dark matter can be understood as the influence of energy conversions within Zero Theory's medium.
 Relation to Gravity:
Dark matter interacts gravitationally with ordinary matter, and in Zero Theory, gravity is generated by vibrations and conversions in the cosmic medium. Thus, the effects of dark matter can be explained based on the changes in the medium's energy.
\[\nabla^2 \Phi = 4\pi G \left( \rho_m + \delta \rho_{\text{vac}} \right)\]
Here, \(\delta \rho_{\text{vac}}\) represents fluctuations in vacuum energy density, understood not as a material entity but as a distortion in spacetime, characterized by the Planck length \( l_P \).
5. Redefinition of Gravitons: Understanding as Mediators of Energy Conversion
Gravitons are traditionally considered quantum particles that mediate gravity in quantum mechanics. However, the new theory reinterprets them as part of the energy conversion process itself. Gravity is seen as a phenomenon transmitted through fluctuations in vacuum energy, eliminating the need to assume the existence of gravitons as virtual particles.
In this new interpretation, vacuum energy itself acts as the medium of space, with distortions in space manifesting as increases in density, observed as gravity. Thus, the conversion of vacuum energy directly shapes the structure of spacetime and generates gravitational phenomena.
6. Reinterpretation of Quantum Entanglement and Vacuum Energy
6.1 The Role of NonLocal Correlation and Vacuum Energy
Quantum entanglement is interpreted as a phenomenon where energy states mutually influence each other through the vacuum energy field. This perspective explains why the correlation between entangled particles is maintained regardless of distance, from the viewpoint of energy conversion.
\[\langle \psi_1  \hat{O}  \psi_2 \rangle = \int e^{i\omega t} \delta \rho_{\text{vac}}(x, t) dx\]
This equation indicates that fluctuations in vacuum energy play a role in maintaining the correlation between entangled particles.
7. Unified Understanding through Vacuum Energy Conversion
7.1 Common Mechanism of Photons and Gravity
Photons and gravity are understood as phenomena transmitted through the conversion of vacuum energy. This common mechanism explains how energy state transformations are linked to various physical phenomena.
\[E_{\text{photon}} = \hbar \omega, \quad G_{\mu\nu} = 8\pi G \rho_{\text{vac}} g_{\mu\nu}\]
This shows that both photons and gravity rely on the fluctuations in vacuum energy through a shared mechanism.
8. Conclusion: Consistency of the New Theory from the Perspective of Energy Conversion
The new theory aims to explain all physical phenomena through processes of energy conversion, providing a consistent framework for understanding photons, gravity, dark energy, dark matter, and quantum entanglement. By applying Zero Theory, the impact of vacuum energy density on the curvature of spacetime is clearly articulated in mathematical terms, enabling a unified understanding that maintains consistency with current physical theories while offering new interpretations. This approach returns to the foundations of Einstein's \(E=mc^2\), offering a simpler and more coherent theoretical system.
Appendix: Importance of Theoretical Consistency and Experimental Verification
To ensure the consistency and reliability of the new theory, the following points are essential:
 Detailed Mechanism Elucidation:
Strengthening the physical basis of the theory by providing detailed explanations of energy conversion processes and mechanisms.  Examination of Consistency with Observational Data:
Comparing the theory's predictions with observational data (e.g., cosmic microwave background radiation, galaxy rotation curves, gravitational lensing effects) to ensure alignment.  Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Verification:
Enhancing the theory's practicality and reliability by outlining specific predictions and how they can be experimentally verified.  Clarification of Terminology:
Defining and explaining unique terms and concepts within the new theory to facilitate reader understanding.  Theory's Limitations and Future Prospects:
Discussing the current limitations of the new theory and outlining future research directions to address unresolved challenges.
The above content provides a detailed explanation with mathematical equations necessary to comprehensively describe the new theory. By integrating Zero Theory with the new theory, a comprehensive physical model based on energy conversion is presented, offering a new perspective on existing physical theories. Future research and experimental verification are expected to further elucidate the validity and consistency of this theory.
Transmission of Photons and Gravity
Using the Vacuum as a Medium
New Theory: The Role of Vacuum Energy in Unifying All Phenomena through Energy Conversion
The new theory reinterprets the individual concepts of traditional physics (photons, gravity, dark energy, dark matter, gravitons, etc.) through the perspective that "everything can be explained by energy conversion." This approach, based on Einstein's famous equation \(E=mc^2\), understands physical phenomena as a series of processes of energy conversion. Additionally, by applying Zero Theory to Einstein's equation, it further explores how vacuum energy density influences the curvature of spacetime. This article elaborates on this new perspective, focusing on the dynamic role of vacuum energy, the transmission of photons and gravity, the reinterpretation of dark energy and dark matter, the understanding of quantum entanglement, and the redefinition of the law of energy conservation.
1. Reinterpretation of Vacuum Energy
1.1 The Dynamic Role of Vacuum Energy as Energy Conversion
In traditional physics, the vacuum is often considered an empty space without energy. However, the new theory interprets the vacuum as a field with zeropoint energy fluctuations, viewing the vacuum itself as the primary stage for energy conversion. This perspective posits that fluctuations in the vacuum's energy density are the foundation for all physical phenomena.
Equation:
The expectation value of zeropoint energy is expressed as follows:
\[\langle 0  H  0 \rangle = \frac{1}{2} \sum_{k=0}^{k_{\text{max}}} \hbar \omega_k\]
This equation indicates that vacuum fluctuations cause finite energy variations. Here, the cutoff wave number \( k_{\text{max}} \) is set using the Planck length \( l_P \), preventing the divergence of vacuum energy to infinity.
\[k_{\text{max}} = \frac{1}{l_P}, \quad l_P = \sqrt{\frac{\hbar G}{c^3}}\]
This setting shows how energy conversion occurs at the smallest physical scale (Planck length), providing the basis for the new theory.
2. Extension of Einstein's Equation with Zero Theory
2.1 Application of Zero Theory to Einstein's Equation
Applying Zero Theory to Einstein's equation reveals that vacuum energy density directly influences the curvature of spacetime. In traditional general relativity, the distribution of matter and energy determines the structure of spacetime, but Zero Theory adds the influence of vacuum energy to this relationship.
Extended Einstein's Equation with Zero Theory:
\[G_{\mu\nu} = \frac{8\pi G}{c^4} \left( T_{\mu\nu}^{\text{matter}}  \rho_{\text{vac}} g_{\mu\nu} \right)\]
This equation shows that in addition to the distribution of matter and energy, the vacuum energy density \(\rho_{\text{vac}}\) contributes to the curvature of spacetime. It emphasizes that vacuum energy is not merely a background energy but a dynamic element actively shaping the structure of spacetime.
2.2 Relationship between Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant
In this extended equation, the dynamic changes in vacuum energy density play the role of dark energy, providing a deeper understanding beyond the traditional static cosmological constant \(\Lambda\). This naturally explains the accelerated expansion of the universe as a result of energy conversion.
3. Unified Explanation of Photons and Gravity
3.1 Reinterpretation of the WaveParticle Duality of Photons
While photons are traditionally known to possess both wavelike and particlelike properties, the new theory views the existence of photons as a transient phenomenon resulting from the dynamic conversion of vacuum energy. The wave and particle nature of photons are reinterpreted as energy states arising from local fluctuations in vacuum energy density.
\[E = h\nu\]
This equation shows that the energy of photons is determined by the conversion of vacuum energy, explaining how the propagation of light depends on the energy density of the vacuum.
3.2 Relationship between Gravity and Energy Conversion
In the new theory, gravity is also interpreted as a result of the energy conversion of the vacuum. Gravitational potential depends on fluctuations in vacuum energy density, which cause the curvature of spacetime.
\[\nabla^2 \Phi = 4\pi G \left( \rho_m + \delta \rho_{\text{vac}} \right)\]
Here, \(\delta \rho_{\text{vac}}\) represents the fluctuation in vacuum energy density, clearly showing that gravity is not a material entity but a curvature of spacetime based on energy conversion.
4. Reinterpretation of Dark Energy and Dark Matter
4.1 Dark Energy: Cosmic Expansion as Energy Conversion
Dark energy is traditionally understood as the energy responsible for the accelerated expansion of the universe. However, the new theory interprets it as energy conversion resulting from temporal fluctuations in vacuum energy. This approach explains dark energy based on the fluctuations in the universe's energy density.
\[\rho_{\text{vac}}(t) = \rho_{\text{vac},0} \left( \frac{a_0}{a(t)} \right)^n\]
This equation demonstrates that the effects of dark energy stem from the dynamic variations in vacuum energy. As the universe expands, the vacuum energy density decreases, leading to fluctuations in the vacuum, which serve as the source of energy, manifesting as dark energy.
4.2 A New Understanding of Dark Matter: Energy Conversion of the Vacuum
Dark matter has traditionally been considered a hypothetical substance needed to account for the mass required to form and maintain galaxies. However, the new theory reinterprets dark matter not as a form of matter but as local fluctuations in vacuum energy density. These fluctuations create distortions in spacetime, observed as gravitational effects.
Furthermore, this approach supports the hypothesis that "dark matter equals the vacuum itself." In other words, the vacuum itself compensates for the missing mass required for galaxy formation and maintenance through energy conversion. This perspective allows dark matter to be understood not as a hypothetical substance but as a phenomenon originating from the energy conversion of the vacuum.
\[\nabla^2 \Phi = 4\pi G \left( \rho_m + \delta \rho_{\text{vac}} \right)\]
Here, \(\delta \rho_{\text{vac}}\) represents fluctuations in vacuum energy density, understood not as a material entity but as a distortion in spacetime, characterized by the Planck length \( l_P \).
5. Redefinition of Gravitons: Understanding as Mediators of Energy Conversion
Gravitons are traditionally considered quantum particles that mediate gravity. However, the new theory reinterprets them as part of the energy conversion process itself. Gravity is seen as a phenomenon transmitted through fluctuations in vacuum energy, eliminating the need to assume the existence of gravitons as virtual particles.
In this new interpretation, vacuum energy itself acts as the medium of space, with the distortion of space manifesting as an increase in density, observed as gravity. Thus, vacuum energy conversion is directly responsible for forming the structure of spacetime and generating gravitational phenomena.
6. Reinterpretation of Quantum Entanglement and Vacuum Energy
6.1 The Role of NonLocal Correlation and Vacuum Energy
Quantum entanglement is interpreted as a phenomenon in which energy states mutually influence each other through the vacuum energy field. This perspective explains why the correlation between entangled particles is maintained regardless of distance, from the viewpoint of energy conversion.
\[\langle \psi_1  \hat{O}  \psi_2 \rangle = \int e^{i\omega t} \delta \rho_{\text{vac}}(x, t) dx\]
This equation indicates that fluctuations in vacuum energy play a role in maintaining the correlation between entangled particles.
7. Unified Understanding through Vacuum Energy Conversion
7.1 Common Mechanism of Photons and Gravity
Photons and gravity are understood as phenomena transmitted through the conversion of vacuum energy. This common mechanism explains how energy state transformations are linked to various physical phenomena.
\[E_{\text{photon}} = \hbar \omega, \quad G_{\mu\nu} = 8\pi G \rho_{\text{vac}} g_{\mu\nu}\]
This shows that both photons and gravity rely on the fluctuations in vacuum energy through a shared mechanism.
8. Conclusion: Consistency of the New Theory from the Perspective of Energy Conversion
The new theory aims to explain all physical phenomena through processes of energy conversion, providing a consistent framework for understanding photons, gravity, dark energy, dark matter, and quantum entanglement. By applying Zero Theory, the impact of vacuum energy density on the curvature of spacetime is clearly articulated in mathematical terms, enabling a unified understanding that maintains consistency with current physical theories while offering new interpretations. This approach returns to the foundations of Einstein's \(E=mc^2\), offering a simpler and more coherent theoretical system.
Consideration of Zero Theory and Quantum Communication
This is an experimental analysis conducted by having GPT, which understands the theory, reflect on the subject.
1. Basic Concept of Zero Theory
Zero theory is a theory based on the definition of "0 = +∞  ∞," suggesting that energy generation and dissipation are handled on an infinite scale. In this theory, the nonlocality of energy and vacuum fluctuations play a crucial role. The definition "0 = +∞  ∞" in zero theory presents a counterintuitive mechanism where energy locally diverges to infinity, while as a reaction, an infinitesimal energy dissipation occurs. This nonlocal generation and dissipation of energy might play a significant role in quantum bit state transitions, particularly affecting the generation and maintenance of quantum entanglement through energy redistribution according to zero theory.
2. Basic Concept of Quantum Communication
Quantum communication is a technology that uses the principles of quantum mechanics to transmit information, utilizing quantum bits (qubits). Key technologies include quantum teleportation, which uses quantum entanglement, and quantum encryption (quantum key distribution). Compared to conventional communication technologies, quantum communication offers higher security and efficiency, leveraging the characteristics of quantum entanglement to provide novel means of information transfer.
3. Relationship Between Zero Theory and Quantum Communication
3.1 Nonlocality of Energy and Quantum Communication
Zero theory emphasizes the nonlocality of energy, meaning that energy can instantaneously influence a wide range. This nonlocal interaction of energy may also affect quantum communication. Specifically, the following points are considered:
Generation and Maintenance of Quantum Entanglement: Nonlocal energy transformation based on zero theory could support the generation and maintenance of quantum entanglement. The nonlocal distribution of energy may stabilize quantum entanglement, improving the quality of communication signals. Particularly, the dynamic redistribution of energy as indicated by zero theory could strengthen correlations between qubits, contributing to the maintenance of entangled states over time.
Efficiency of Information Transmission: The nonlocal distribution of energy could potentially enhance the efficiency of quantum
communication. For example, the generation and propagation of quantum entanglement may be performed rapidly and efficiently through nonlocal energy transfer, possibly leading to significant improvements in the speed and distance of quantum communication.
3.2 Security Enhancement of Quantum Communication Through Zero Theory
From the perspective of zero theory, nonlocal energy transformation could contribute to the security of quantum communication.
Quantum Encryption: Quantum encryption protocols utilizing energy redistribution based on zero theory could be conceived as a new security technology. Nonlocal energy transfer might enhance the security of quantum encryption, improving resilience against attacks. In particular, nonlocal energy manipulation in quantum key distribution could make eavesdropping more difficult, thereby maintaining the integrity of communication.
Error Correction: The nonlocal adjustment of energy according to zero theory could be helpful in error correction technologies within quantum communication. Managing energy nonlocally might allow for more accurate maintenance of qubit states, reducing the error rate. This approach, when combined with quantum repeater technology, could potentially provide even stronger error tolerance.
4. Proposal of a New Quantum Communication Protocol
4.1 Quantum Communication Protocol Based on Zero Theory
The following proposals can be considered for new protocols and algorithms for quantum communication leveraging zero theory:
Quantum Repeater Technology: Quantum repeater technology utilizing nonlocal redistribution of energy based on zero theory could reduce decoherence in longdistance quantum communication. This may lead to improvements in the distance and quality of quantum communication signals. This technology might overcome the loss problems that current quantum repeaters face, possibly leading to a significant expansion of communication range.
Nonlocal Energy Adjustment: Energy adjustment technology based on zero theory might be used as a method to improve the security and speed of quantum communication. Specifically, nonlocal energy distribution could stabilize qubit states and increase the efficiency of communication. If this technology is established, it could pave the way for building faster and more secure quantum networks.
5. Experimental Validation
5.1 Experimental Approach
The following experimental approaches can be considered to verify the relationship between zero theory and quantum communication:
Measurement of Energy Distribution: To observe the impact of energy transformation based on zero theory on quantum communication, highly accurate energy distribution measurement equipment is required. Particularly, devices such as lowtemperature electron microscopes or energy scattering devices in ultrahigh vacuum conditions, capable of capturing energy fluctuations at the nanoscale in realtime, are considered.
Generation and Maintenance of Quantum Entanglement: To examine the effect of nonlocal energy redistribution on the generation and maintenance of quantum entanglement, quantum entanglement generation devices capable of adjusting energy will be used. By controlling energy exchange between qubits, the stability of entangled states can be evaluated.
Simulation and Modeling: Simulations based on the predictions of zero theory will be conducted, and attempts will be made to verify the theory by comparing theoretical models with experimental data. This approach is expected to clarify the applicability and limitations of zero theory.
6. Progress in Theory and Technology
Zero theory offers new perspectives on quantum communication through the nonlocality of energy and vacuum fluctuations. Nonlocal energy transformation might contribute to the generation and maintenance of quantum entanglement, improving the efficiency and security of communication. However, several challenges remain for experimentally validating zero theory and applying it to quantum communication technologies.
Technical Limitations: Technologies based on zero theory may only be effective in specific environments, potentially limiting their application range. In contrast, standard quantum communication technologies can be applied in a wider range of environments.
Gap Between Theory and Experiment: There is still a gap between zero theory and practical quantum communication technologies, which needs to be addressed through the development of new experimental methods.
Research Prospects: Future research should aim to expand the range of applications for quantum communication technologies based on zero theory and seek integration with existing technologies. Continued theoretical research is also necessary to deepen the understanding of zero theory.
By addressing these challenges, quantum communication technologies based on zero theory may be established as the nextgeneration communication methods, offering greater security and efficiency.
Black Hole Singularity and Energy Conversion Theory
A New Theoretical Approach Using the Proportional Constant α for Black Hole Singularity and Energy Conversion Theory
Introduction Understanding the energy conversion processes near black holes remains one of the unresolved challenges in modern physics. Particularly at the singularity at the center of a black hole, the gravitational field diverges to infinity, and general relativity (GR) cannot fully describe its behavior. This theory introduces the proportional constant α and aims to explain energy conversion within and outside black holes by considering the singularity as an energy baseline 𝐸₀=⟨0∣𝐻∣0⟩.
The proportional constant α is a parameter for adjusting the intensity of the gravitational field and energy conversion, offering a new perspective by understanding the infinite gravitational field at the singularity not merely as a point of energy concentration, but as the starting point for energy conversion. Furthermore, although constrained by the uncertainty principle and difficult to specify with concrete equations, this energy conversion may provide a unified explanation of the overall energy structure of black holes.
1. A New Perspective on Energy Conversion at the Singularity
Quantum Interpretation of the Singularity
In general relativity, the singularity of a black hole is a point where spacetime curvature diverges to infinity, rendering physical laws inapplicable. However, from a quantum mechanical viewpoint, the singularity can be regarded as the energy baseline 𝐸₀=⟨0∣𝐻∣0⟩, suggesting that this point is the origin of energy conversion. Here, 𝐸₀ corresponds to the energy of the quantum vacuum, serving as a key to the unified explanation of energy conversion near the singularity.
The total energy of a black hole can be expressed by adding the external energy fluctuation Δ𝐸 to this baseline energy 𝐸₀ as follows:
𝐸_{BH} = 𝐸₀ + Δ𝐸
This equation indicates that the energy of the black hole can be interpreted as a fluctuation relative to the baseline energy.
2. The Role of the Proportional Constant α
What is the Proportional Constant α?
The proportional constant α is a parameter used to adjust the intensity of the gravitational field and the energy conversion processes in black holes. The current gravitational field strength depends on the distance 𝑟 from the black hole and its mass 𝑀, as expressed by the following equation:
𝑔(𝑟) = \(\frac{𝐺𝑀}{𝑟²}(1  \frac{𝑟ₛ}{𝑟})\)
Here, 𝐺 is the gravitational constant, and 𝑟ₛ is the Schwarzschild radius. In this equation, the gravitational field becomes stronger as the black hole is approached, diverging to infinity as 𝑟 approaches 𝑟ₛ.
In the new approach, the proportional constant α is introduced to adjust the strength of the gravitational field as follows:
𝑔(𝑟) = \(\alpha \frac{𝐺𝑀}{𝑟²}(1  \frac{𝑟ₛ}{𝑟})\)
This equation shows that the strength of the gravitational field can be adjusted by the value of α.
α > 1: The gravitational field is enhanced, and energy conversion progresses more rapidly.
α < 1: The gravitational field is weakened, and energy conversion progresses more gently.
By introducing the proportional constant α, the energy conversion processes of the black hole are adjusted, and the details of energy conversion near the singularity can be more clearly explained.
3. The Role of Vacuum Energy
Zeropoint Fluctuations and Energy Conservation
Vacuum energy plays an important role in energy conversion processes near black holes. Zeropoint fluctuations are believed to affect black hole evaporation or disappearance, advancing energy conversion within the framework of energy conservation. In this process, zeropoint energy serves as a key reference.
Zeropoint energy can be expressed by the following equation:
⟨0∣𝐻∣0⟩ = \(\frac{1}{2} \sum_{𝑘=0}^{𝑘_{max}} ℏ𝜔ₖ\)
A cutoff is imposed by the speed of light, preventing unbounded, chaotic infinite expansion. As a result, ordered, finite energy conversion within the universe is carried out, deeply related to Hawking radiation and black hole evaporation.
4. Energy Conversion Processes and Mathematical Representation
Energy Radiation by MatterAntimatter Annihilation
Near black holes, the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a major mechanism for energy radiation. Electrons (𝑒⁻) and positrons (𝑒⁺) annihilate each other, emitting gammaray photons as energy.
𝑒⁻ + 𝑒⁺ → 𝛾₁ + 𝛾₂ + 𝛾_{unseen}
Here, 𝑒⁻ is an electron, 𝑒⁺ is a positron, 𝛾₁ and 𝛾₂ are observable gammaray photons, and 𝛾_{unseen} represents unobserved energy radiation (such as neutrinos or unknown particles).
The law of energy conservation is applied as follows:
𝐸_{𝑒⁻} + 𝐸_{𝑒⁺} = 𝐸_{𝛾₁} + 𝐸_{𝛾₂} + 𝐸_{𝛾unseen}
5. A New Relationship Between Gravitational Potential and Mass Density
The proposed gravitational potential equation is as follows:
∇²Φ(𝑥) = 𝛼∇²𝜌(𝑥)
Here, Φ(𝑥) is the gravitational potential, 𝜌(𝑥) is the mass density, and 𝛼 is the proportional constant.
Furthermore, gravitational acceleration 𝑔 is proportional to the gradient of the mass density 𝜌:
𝑔 = −𝛼∇𝜌
6. Relationship Between the Speed of Light and Vacuum Energy Density
It is suggested that variations in vacuum energy density cause slight fluctuations in the speed of light.
𝑐' = 𝑐 \(\left( 1 + \frac{𝛾 𝜌_{vac}}{𝜌_m} \right)\)
Here, 𝑐' is the fluctuated speed of light, 𝑐 is the standard speed of light, 𝛾 is the proportional constant, 𝜌_{vac} is the vacuum energy density, and 𝜌_{m} is the matter energy density.
7. Application of the Law of Energy Conservation
Energy conversion near black holes is described by the law of energy conservation. That is, the total energy absorbed by the black hole, whether from matter or antimatter, is conserved even when transformed into other forms.
𝐸_{total} = 𝐸_{matter} + 𝐸_{antimatter} = 𝐸_{radiation} + 𝐸_{unseen}
8. Considerations on Undetected Energy and Noise
Interference Noise and Information Preservation
Highenergy fluctuations near black holes generate interference noise. This noise, in turn, plays a role in preserving the law of information conservation associated with energy conversion, providing a means to understand energy conversion processes around black holes through analysis. Particularly, the simultaneous action of both serial and parallel information conservation laws suggests that the diversity and complexity of energy conversion can be elucidated through noise analysis.
9. The Influence of the Uncertainty Principle
Near the singularity of a black hole, the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics plays an important role.
Δ𝐸⋅Δ𝑡≥\(\frac{ℏ}{2}\)
This uncertainty principle indicates that energy conversion over a short period can only be described probabilistically, suggesting that energy fluctuations occur probabilistically.
10. The Possibility of Integration with Quantum Gravity Theories
Current general relativity explains how gravity increases rapidly toward the center of a black hole but does not sufficiently describe the "infinitely strong" state beyond. In contrast, string theory and loop quantum gravity theory provide comprehensive insights into energy conversion at the black hole singularity.
Specifically, theories within string theory and loop quantum gravity propose avoiding the infinite state at the black hole singularity, suggesting that energy conversion occurs as it passes through the baseline energy ⟨0∣𝐻∣0⟩. This provides a new integrated perspective while maintaining consistency in physics, demonstrating that energy is conserved inside and outside the black hole through quantum energy conversion rather than becoming infinitely strong.
11. Conclusion
By regarding the black hole singularity as the energy baseline 𝐸₀=⟨0∣𝐻∣0⟩ and introducing the proportional constant α, the energy conversion process can be explained in a unified manner. Considering the effects of vacuum energy and zeropoint fluctuations on black hole evaporation and energy conversion, the diversity and complexity of energy conversion may be elucidated through noise analysis.
Furthermore, integration with string theory and loop quantum gravity theory can avoid the issue of infinite energy at the black hole singularity, strengthening the consistency of energy conversion theories. Future developments will aim to refine these theories, with experimental verification and observational support expected.
Impact on Cosmic Structure: Vacuum Fluctuations and Energy Transformation
 What are Vacuum Fluctuations?
 Definition: Vacuum fluctuations refer to the phenomenon where, even in what is considered empty space, energy is constantly present, causing minute fluctuations at the quantum level. This concept is based on the idea in quantum mechanics that the "empty" state of space is actually filled with small energy variations.
 Impact: Vacuum fluctuations, as quantum field fluctuations, may influence various physical phenomena and energy generation. For instance, virtual particles may exist for short periods, contributing to actual particle and energy transformations.
 Impact on Cosmic Structure
 Conservation of Total Energy: In Zero Theory and related frameworks, it is suggested that energy transformations occurring within the universe are influenced by vacuum fluctuations. However, the total amount of energy remains constant. This follows the law of conservation of energy, where energy transformation takes place while maintaining the overall balance.
 Energy Transformation and Conservation: When energy transformations occur within the universe, although energy may be converted into different forms, the total energy remains unchanged. For example, when matter is converted into energy or vice versa, the energy balance of the entire universe is preserved.
 Vacuum Fluctuations and Energy Generation
 Influence of Quantum Fields: Vacuum fluctuations may cause quantum fields to generate energy. This energy may be observed as the creation and annihilation of virtual particle pairs or as localized energy fluctuations.
 Localized Energy Fluctuations: Vacuum fluctuations can lead to localized energy changes, resulting in temporary energy transformations. However, overall, the conservation of energy holds true.
 Cosmic Structure and Energy Transformation
 Cosmic Expansion and Energy: The expansion of the universe may affect the distribution of energy. Vacuum fluctuations can influence the structure of the universe, potentially leading to the redistribution of energy, but the total amount of energy remains unchanged.
 Dark Energy and Vacuum Energy: Dark energy, which is thought to be related to the accelerated expansion of the universe, may be partly due to vacuum fluctuations. These fluctuations affect the generation and distribution of energy, playing a role in the structure and expansion of the universe.
Conclusion:
Vacuum fluctuations are considered to play a significant role in the energy transformations within the universe. However, the total energy of the universe is believed to remain constant. This ensures that while energy transformations and generation influence the structure and expansion of the universe, the law of conservation of energy is maintained.
Consistency Between Zero Theory and Multiverse Theory
 Consistency Between Zero Theory and Multiverse Theory (Inflation Theory)
 Definition of Zero Theory:
Zero Theory utilizes the expression "0 = +∞  ∞," positing that subtracting infinite energy from infinite energy results in a "zeroenergy state." Here, "zero" represents a transition point in the transformation of energy.  Energy Transformation:
This "zeroenergy state" describes the process through which the universe expands and stabilizes via the generation and annihilation of energy.
 Inflation and Bubble Universes
 Inflation Theory:
According to Inflation Theory, the universe underwent a period of rapid expansion, resulting in the formation of multiple bubble universes, each with different physical laws and constants. These bubble universes are said to exist in independent spatial and temporal realms.  Formation of Bubble Universes:
Each bubble universe is formed through inflation, leading to universes with varying physical characteristics.
 Interpretation from the Perspective of Zero Theory
 Zero Theory and Inflation:
Using Zero Theory’s definition "0 = +∞  ∞," one might observe a potential consistency with the formation of bubble universes through inflation. Specifically, the process by which the universe expands from an infinite energy state and stabilizes aligns with Zero Theory’s concept of energy transformation.  Energy Processes:
The process of energy generation and annihilation in Zero Theory can be seen as similar to the formation of bubble universes in Inflation Theory, suggesting that both theories relate to the creation and expansion of the universe.
 Consideration of Consistency
 Consistency of Theories:
The appearance of the "zeroenergy state" in phenomena related to inflation may serve as a basis for evaluating the consistency of the two theories. Inflation provides a framework for energy transformation and the creation of the universe, potentially aligning with Zero Theory’s energy cycle.  New Perspectives:
Interpreting Zero Theory’s "0 = +∞  ∞" in the context of inflation and bubble universes may offer new insights into the origin and evolution of the universe. This highlights "zero" as a transition point in energy transformation and could deepen our understanding of the universe.
Fusion and the Perspective of Total Energy
Mechanism of Fusion
Big Bang and Big Crunch:
Zero Theory suggests a cycle where the universe progresses from the Big Bang to the Big Crunch. Through this cycle, energy is locally concentrated, while mass and energy are preserved in the universe as a whole.
Energy Transformation:
The hypothesis that some phenomena merge and convert energy into other forms while maintaining the total mass is consistent with the law of conservation of energy.
Impact of Nonlocality
Energy Redistribution:
Nonlocal energy exchanges and interactions may adjust changes in mass and energy across the entire space, ensuring the overall conservation law is satisfied.
Coherence:
A specific model or theory is necessary to demonstrate that nonlocal energy exchanges or information within a medium do not violate the overall conservation laws.
Conclusion
Zero Theory and Multiverse Theory (Inflation Theory)
Zero Theory and Multiverse Theory are related in their views on the generation and annihilation of energy, as well as the expansion and contraction of the universe. Interpreting Zero Theory’s "0 = +∞  ∞" in terms of inflation’s bubble universes allows for exploration of their theoretical consistency. Confirming this consistency would require detailed mathematical models and alignment with observational data.
Fusion Mechanism:
The energy transformation resulting from the Big Bang and Big Crunch cycle supports the alignment between Zero Theory and Inflation Theory.
Impact of Nonlocality:
Nonlocal energy exchanges within a medium could form a theoretical framework consistent with the laws of energy and mass conservation.
By integrating these comparisons, the consistency between Zero Theory and Multiverse Theory can be evaluated, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of the origin and evolution of the universe.
Q&A Content
Q: Why don’t all universes move the same way?
A: According to fractal theory, the behavior of universes may differ individually because their structure is selfsimilar yet influenced by varying conditions and fluctuations. The uncertainty principle also plays a role here.
Evaluation of Accuracy
Fractal Theory and Universal Behavior
Fractal Theory:
Fractal theory explains how structures with selfsimilarity repeat the same patterns across different scales. Applying a fractal structure to the universe helps understand varying behaviors at different local scales or under different conditions.
Applicability:
While there is room for debate on how broadly fractal theory can apply to the behavior of the entire universe, it is possible that fractallike structures are influenced by local conditions.
Uncertainty Principle
Uncertainty Principle:
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle demonstrates the limits of simultaneously measuring physical quantities like position and momentum. While this principle doesn’t directly affect the universe’s overall motion, it may influence quantumscale behavior and be related to the universe's initial state or fine structure.
Conclusion
Fractal theory provides an intriguing perspective on the universe's structure, but more specific theoretical support is needed to fully explain why universes don’t move the same way. Although the uncertainty principle may indirectly influence universal behavior, it doesn’t directly govern the overall motion of the universe. Therefore, while the response to the Q&A is partially correct, more detailed explanations and clarification of the related theories are required. Fractal theory and the uncertainty principle may impact the universe’s behavior, but other factors likely play a role in the differing motions of universes.
Potential Integration of Fractal Theory and Zero Theory
The consideration of integrating fractal theory and zero theory is quite fascinating. It is wellorganized, covering the fundamental concepts of each theory, the potential for integration, as well as the grounds for both supporting and refuting such a union. Below, I will further elaborate on the possibilities of integrating fractal theory and zero theory.
Fractal Universe Structure
Based on fractal theory, the idea that the structure of the universe is selfsimilar is supported. For instance, the same patterns might repeat from clusters of galaxies down to galaxies, star clusters, and even to stars and planetary systems. This fractal structure may align with the vacuum fluctuations and energy cycles proposed by zero theory.
The Universe Within Matter
According to fractal theory, it is possible that fractal structures exist within matter as well. For example, the structures of atoms and molecules might exhibit selfsimilarity to largerscale cosmic structures. This suggests the potential for miniature representations of the universe within matter.
Scaling of Energy
The energy cycles and gravity described by zero theory might scale fractally, leading to a unified understanding of material formation and energy transformation across different scales. The consistency of the theory could be strengthened if the energy scaling and fluctuations of energy cycles are treated fractally.
Linking Vacuum Fluctuations and the Universe with Fractal Theory
Fractal SelfSimilarity and Cosmic Structure:
Fractals are characterized by selfsimilarity, where the whole resembles its parts. If the universe is structured fractally, largescale structures like galaxies and galaxy clusters might share similar patterns with smallerscale structures like stars and planets. A universe generated from vacuum fluctuations may also exhibit this selfsimilarity.
Vacuum Fluctuations and the Fractal Generation of the Universe:
Vacuum fluctuations, in quantum field theory, are thought to generate particleantiparticle pairs, which contribute to the creation of the universe. By applying fractal theory, these pairs may be seen as contributing to the process of generating a selfsimilar universe. In other words, the universe's creation process could follow a fractallike repeating pattern, with the generated universe further producing new universes with a fractal structure.
Fractal Theory and Cosmic Cycles:
The concept of scaling and selfsimilarity in fractal theory could also be applied to the cycles of the universe. The cycle of the Big Bang and Big Crunch may possess selfsimilar structures in a fractal sense. Thus, as one universe contracts and a new one is created, the fractal pattern could be preserved.
Fractal Universe Model:
In the fractal universe model, it is assumed that the structure of the universe exhibits fractal selfsimilarity. For example, the largescale structure of the observable universe could have similar patterns at smaller scales. This model aligns with the idea that a universe generated from vacuum fluctuations possesses a fractal structure.
Theoretical Integration Using Fractal Theory
Fractal Generation Process:
One hypothesis is that vacuum fluctuations generate a universe with a selfsimilar fractal structure. In this case, the universe’s creation process and structure are thought to follow the scaling laws of fractals.
Fractal Flow of Time:
If the cycles of the universe are related fractally, then the flow of time itself might possess fractal characteristics. This means that the flow of time at different scales could exhibit selfsimilarity.
A Fractal Universe as a Whole:
The overall structure of the universe may follow a fractal pattern, where the generated universe further produces new universes in a fractal process. This perspective suggests that a universe generated from vacuum fluctuations might possess a selfsimilar fractal structure.
Conclusion
By applying fractal theory to vacuum fluctuations and the creation of the universe, the universe may exhibit fractal selfsimilarity, with creation and annihilation occurring in fractal patterns. The hypothesis that universes generated from vacuum fluctuations have fractal structures and that the cycles of the universe are fractally related might provide a new perspective for understanding the structure of the universe and the flow of time.
Grounds for Refutation
Lack of Mathematical Foundations:
The integration of fractal theory and zero theory may lack specific mathematical models or formulas. For successful integration, consistent mathematical explanations and models of these theories are needed.
Insufficient Empirical Evidence:
If there is a lack of empirical evidence supporting the fractal structure of the universe or the existence of a universe within matter, the possibility of theoretical integration diminishes. If observational data do not support this integration, the hypothesis may be rejected.
Theoretical Contradictions:
If there are theoretical contradictions between fractal theory and zero theory, integration may become challenging. For instance, contradictions regarding the conservation of energy or the structure of matter could make integration difficult.
Incompatibility with Current Physics:
If the integration does not align with current physical theories, particularly general relativity and quantum mechanics, it may face limitations. In cases where these theories are contradicted, the possibility of integration could be restricted.
Nonlocality and Scaling of Energy
Considerations on how nonlocality of energy affects both the cosmic scale and local scale highlight the following points:
Conclusion
Strictly speaking, the concept of a "local scale" does not exist. All phenomena impact the entire universe, so distinguishing between local and nonlocal is merely a matter of the observer's relative perspective. Thus, it is reasonable to consider all scales as nonlocal.
Unified Understanding of the Universe
Viewing the universe as a single medium, any energy transformations within this medium do not change the total mass of the universe, nor does it alter the overall shape of the universe. While internal components like galaxy structures might be affected, this is still considered part of the overall cosmic interactions.
Importance of Nonlocal Scale
Everything within the universe interacts with each other, and the magnitude of these interactions varies widely. From extremely fine phenomena that are difficult to observe, to phenomena like Earth's gravity that are perceptible to everyone, understanding how this nonlocal distribution of energy affects the structure and dynamics of the universe requires detailed verification through simulations and experiments.
The discussion of nonlocality and scaling of energy is useful as a supplementary perspective in relation to several current theories, particularly the following:
Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Field Theory
Nonlocality:
Quantum mechanics demonstrates phenomena like entanglement, where information is instantaneously shared between spatially separated particles. This suggests nonlocality, emphasizing that energy and information can affect each other across spatial separations. The concept of nonlocal scales in Zero Theory is related to this quantum nonlocality and supplements the explanation of energy interactions across the entire universe.
General Relativity
Gravity and Spacetime Distortion:
General relativity posits that mass and energy warp spacetime, creating gravity. This distortion of spacetime is not limited to local effects but extends across the universe. The concept of nonlocal scales helps explain how gravitational waves affect the entire cosmos.
Holographic Principle
Holographic Theory:
The holographic principle proposes that information about the universe is stored across its entirety. The nonlocal nature of energy and information aligns well with this principle, offering a supplementary explanation for energy conservation and interactions across the universe.
Inflation Theory and Multiverse Theory
Inflation:
According to inflation theory, the universe undergoes rapid expansion, resulting in the formation of multiple independent universes (bubble universes). The nonlocal distribution of energy is a useful addition for understanding this inflationary process and interactions between different universes in the multiverse.
Cyclic Model (Adjoint Energy Theory)
Cyclic Universe Model:
The cyclic universe model proposes a recurring cycle of Big Bang and Big Crunch. In this model, nonlocality of energy is an important supplementary factor in understanding the conservation and transformation of energy across the universe.
Summary
The concept of nonlocal scale plays a crucial role in deepening the understanding of cosmic structure and dynamics when related to various current theories. Particularly, the connections with quantum mechanics' entanglement, gravitational waves in general relativity, the holographic principle, inflation theory, and the cyclic universe model are strong. These theories provide a comprehensive explanation of extensive interactions of energy and information.
1. Complementary Relationships Between Zero Theory and Other Theories
Definition of Zero Theory: Zero Theory posits that the universe and matter arise from and disappear into a single medium known as "vacuum." This medium is responsible for energy transformations, with the total mass remaining unchanged.
Relationships with Other Theories:
 Quantum Mechanics: Quantum fluctuations and quantum field fluctuations describe phenomena where energy appears as particle pairs over short timescales. In Zero Theory, this is viewed as energy transformation within the vacuum.
 General Relativity: While General Relativity integrates time and space, Zero Theory treats space as a single medium where energy conservation and transformation are based on the properties of this medium.
 Multiverse Theory: Zero Theory connects to Multiverse Theory by suggesting that vacuum fluctuations generate multiple universes. Each universe arises from fluctuations in the vacuum, maintaining energy balance.
2. Gravity and Nonlocality of Energy
 Understanding Gravity: In Zero Theory, gravity is defined as "distortions in space due to waves," with the vacuum serving as the medium that transmits gravity.
 Nonlocality of Energy: Quantum entanglement illustrates energy’s nonlocal distribution and interaction. Zero Theory suggests that energy and information might be transmitted instantaneously through the vacuum, potentially opening new technological possibilities for quantum communication and energy management.
3. Consistency Between Zero Theory and Multiverse Theory
 Relation to Inflation Theory: Zero Theory interprets the rapid cosmic expansion described by Inflation Theory as a phenomenon driven by a zeroenergy state. This leads to the view that cosmic creation and dissolution occur in a continuous cycle.
 ZeroEnergy State of Bubble Universes: Each bubble universe is thought to be in a zeroenergy state, with energy generation and disappearance balancing out. Zero Theory considers this as part of a consistent energy cycle.
4. Interpretation and Consideration of the Formula "0 = +∞  ∞"
 Meaning and Philosophical Consideration: The formula "0 = +∞  ∞" suggests that infinite positive and negative energies cancel out, potentially indicating that the universe or matter can originate from "nothing."
 Quantum Mechanical Interpretation and Wave Nature of Matter: The idea that matter's waves arise from "nothing" and spread within the vacuum medium implies an integration of Zero Theory with quantum mechanics.
 Integration of Science and Philosophy: This formula raises fundamental philosophical questions about the nature of existence, seeking new understandings in both physics and philosophy.
5. Measurement and Evaluation of Cyclic Periods
 Effects of Vacuum Fluctuations: Observations such as the Casimir effect can measure the energy density and periodic variations of the vacuum.
 Cycles of Cosmic Expansion and Contraction: Based on observations of the universe's expansion rate and redshift, the velocity and periodicity of expansion and contraction cycles can be evaluated.
6. Future Research Challenges and Approaches
 Integrated Development of Zero Theory: It is essential to deepen the consistency of Zero Theory with quantum mechanics and General Relativity to advance its integration.
 Research on Gravitational Waves and Nonlocality of Energy: New methods for detecting gravitational waves and experiments based on nonlocality of energy are expected to test the validity of Zero Theory.
Summary
Zero Theory is an integrative theory that considers the vacuum as a single medium, aiming to consistently explain energy conservation, transformation, and nonlocality. This theory has the potential to complement existing theories such as quantum mechanics, relativity, and multiverse theory, and to promote new understandings of physical phenomena.
Fractallike structure of the universe, Big Bang, Big Crunch
Dark Energy and the ExpansionContraction Cycle in Zero Theory
Vacuum Fluctuation and Matter Creation
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The attractive forces in Zero Theory
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Periodicity and Speed of Cycles
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Considerations on the Integration of Zero Theory with Relativity and Quantum Theory
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Consideration of Zero Theory and Quantum Communication
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Black Hole Singularity and Energy Conversion Theory
Impact on Cosmic Structure: Vacuum Fluctuations and Energy Transformation
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Consistency Between Zero Theory and Multiverse Theory
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Potential Integration of Fractal Theory and Zero Theory
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Nonlocality and Scaling of Energy
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Complementary Relationships Between Zero Theory and Other Theories
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